Enzyme

Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Human Immunodeficiency Virus The topic of this paper is the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, and whether or not mutations undergone by the virus allow it to survive in the immune system. The cost of treating all persons with AIDS in 1993 in the United States was $7.8 billion, and it is estimated that 20,000 new cases of AIDS are reported every 3 months to the CDC. This question dealing with how HIV survives in the immune system is of critical importance, not only in the search for a cure for t
The Digestive Systems
The Digestive Systems
The Digestive Systems The digestive systems works on nutrients taken from the environment, breaking them down into simpler products, and then absorbing the products together with water and salts so they can be used in metabolism. The individuals of all species contain many different protiens or carbohydrates in the cell walls of bacteria, chitin in the external skeletons of arthropods, and so on and foreign proteins or carbohydrates are rarely incorporated unchanged. They are usually first broke
Dementia
Dementia
Dementia What is Dementia? Dementia is an organic brain syndrome which results in global cognitive impairments. Dementia can occur as a result of a variety of neurological diseases. Some of the more well known dementing diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and Huntington's disease (HD). Throughout this essay the emphasis will be placed on AD (also known as dementia of the Alzheimer's type, and primary degenerative dementia), because statistically it is the mos
Active Transport
Active Transport
Active Transport Since the cell membrane is somewhat permeable to sodium ions, simple diffusion would result in a net movement of sodium ions into the cell, until the concentrations on the two sides of the membrane became equal. Sodium actually does diffuse into the cell rather freely, but as fast as it does so, the cell actively pumps it out again, against the concentration difference. The mechanism by which the cell pumps the sodium ions out is called active transport. Active transport require
Theory Of Evolution
Theory Of Evolution
Theory of Evolution TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION ............................................... 2 DARWINIAN THEORY OF EVOLUTION .............................. 4 THE THEORY OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION: CONTRIBUTING ELEMENTS ....................... 7 WALLACE'S CONTRIBUTIONS ................................... 13 HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE .................................. 15 COMPARISON: LAMARCK vs. DARWIN ........................... 16 DARWIN'S INFLUENCES .......................................
Amylase, Catalase and Invertase Enzyme Labs
Amylase, Catalase and Invertase Enzyme Labs
Amylase, Catalase and Invertase Enzyme Labs IB Biology SL Y1 22 April 2014 Amylase, Catalase and Invertase Enzyme Labs Introduction Catalase Catalase is responsible for converting hydrogen peroxide1, which is harmful within living organisms, into water and oxygen molecules. This experiment investigates the effect of hydrogen peroxide on boiled and raw materials such as potatoes, liver, yeast cells, etc. If boiled materials were put into hydrogen peroxide, there would be no significant enzymatic
Digestion and Absorption
Digestion and Absorption
Introduction The key issue in the digestion and absorption of fats is one of solubility. Lipids are hydrophobic, and thus are poorly soluble in the aqueous environment of the digestive tract. The digestive enzyme, lipase, is water soluble and can only work at the surface of fat globules. Digestion is greatly aided by emulsification, the breaking up of fat globules into much smaller emulsion droplets. Bile salts and phospholipids are amphipathic molecules that are present in the bile. Motility in
Enzymes
Enzymes
Experiment 12. The action of lipase There are three or four liquids to be added to each test-tube, in various combinations, so look at the table at the foot of this page to get an idea of the final contents of each tube. (a) Label three test-tubes 1-3. (b) Using a graduated pipette or syringe, place 5 cm3 milk in each tube. (c) Rinse the pipette or syringe and use it to place 7 cm3 dilute (M/I0) sodium carbonate solution in each tube. This solution is to make the mixture alkaline. (d) Rinse the
Investigating the Effect of Lipase Concentration on the Breakdown of F
Investigating the Effect of Lipase Concentration on the Breakdown of F
Investigating the Effect of Lipase Concentration on the Breakdown of Fat in Milk INTRODUCTION: Enzymes are proteins which can catalyse chemical reactions without changing themselves. The enzyme lipase breaks down the fat in dairy products such as full-cream milk for people who are lactose intolerant. Lipase acts on its specific substrate, lipids produces fatty acids. If enzyme concentration increases, random collisions between the substrates and active sites of enzyme increase due to the increas
Investigating effect of temperature on the activity of lipase
Investigating effect of temperature on the activity of lipase
Investigating effect of temperature on the activity of lipase This practical gives you a chance to: • investigate how lipase activity changes with temperature • consider how indicators can help us to follow chemical reactions. Procedure SAFETY: Keep the phenolphthalein solution away from naked flames. Wear eye protection and quickly rinse any splashes of enzyme solution or sodium carbonate from the skin. Make sure you know what to do if a thermometer is broken. Investigation a Label a test tube
Investigating an enzyme controlled reaction: catalase and hydrogen per
Investigating an enzyme controlled reaction: catalase and hydrogen per
Investigating an enzyme controlled reaction: catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration Objectives • to investigate the effect of substrate concentration on the activity of catalase • to evaluate a practical protocol Procedure SAFETY: Wear eye protection and protect clothing from hydrogen peroxide. Rinse splashes of peroxide and pureed potato off the skin as quickly as possible... Investigation a Use the large syringe to measure 20 cm3 pureed potato into the conical flask. b Put the bung secur
Enzymatic Reaction in a Reaction
Enzymatic Reaction in a Reaction
The purpose of this part of the experiment is to find out the course of an enzymatic reaction in a reaction. In order to do this, a measurement of the amount of substrate disappearing over time increments of 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 360 seconds had taken. In this experiment we see that as time progressive the enzymatic rate lowered. The highest rate is the first in the first time interval (0-10) . It was the highest because iit had the highest catalysis amount and the most amount of H2O2 to
CATALASE AND THE DECOMPOSITION OF H2O2
CATALASE AND THE DECOMPOSITION OF H2O2
NAME : CLASS : DBT 4A DATE SUBMITTED : 14 AUG 2015 EXPERIMENT 4: CATALASE AND THE DECOMPOSITION OF H2O2 (VIRTUAL) PROCEDURE 1. Fill the beaker with water and 5ml of hydrogen peroxide. 2. Pipette 1ml of catalase enzyme into the beaker. 3. After 10 seconds, add sulfuric acid into the beaker. 4. Using titration method, check the presence of hydrogen peroxide in beaker. 5. Fill the burette with 5ml of potassium permanganate ( KMnO4). 6. Add KMnO4 drop by drop into the beaker until the H2O2 become pu
EMULSIFICATION AND DIGESTION OF LIPIDS BY BILE AND LIPASE
EMULSIFICATION AND DIGESTION OF LIPIDS BY BILE AND LIPASE
NAME : CLASS : DBT 4A DATE SUBMITTED : 14 AUG 2015 EXPERIMENT 3: EMULSIFICATION AND DIGESTION OF LIPIDS BY BILE AND LIPASE (VIRTUAL) INTRODUCTION Lipase is a type of enzyme known as a hydrolase and is responsible for catalysing the hydrolysis of triglycerides (the substrate) into fatty acids and glycerol. It is referred to as a hydrolase because the reaction that it catalyses is a hydrolysis reaction in which large molecules are broken down into smaller ones with the addition of water. Lipase is
IB Biology syllabus – definitions
IB Biology syllabus – definitions
IB Biology syllabus – definitions * Definition given in IB Biology syllabus TOPIC WORD DEFINITION Topic 1: Cells Organelle A discrete structure within a cell, with a specific function.* Tissue A group of cells similar to each other, along with their associated intercellular substances, which perform the same function within a multicellular organism. Organ A group of tissues which work together as a single unit to perform a particular function within a multicellular organism. Organ system A group
Biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology: The way we use living organisms to producer useful substances. • Many traditional foods, like bread and cheese, are products of biotechnology. • Microbes can reproduce and convert raw materials into products very quickly. • Many foods, like yoghurt and soy sauce, are products of fermentation technology. • Fermentation is the key reaction in many biotechnological processes. • Plants continue to act as a source of drugs of important medicinal value. Mr. Salman Al-Kofahi Biotechnolog
Effect of Different Concentrations of Enzyme on Enzyme Activity
Effect of Different Concentrations of Enzyme on Enzyme Activity
Mashrek International School Effect of Different Concentrations of Enzyme on Enzyme Activity What is the effect of changing the concentration of lipase enzyme on the enzyme activity in catalyzing lipids in whole milk? Naim Al-Haj Ali MYP Year 4B  Aim: To investigate the effect of changing the concentration of lipase enzyme (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%) on the rate of enzyme activity in catalyzing lipids in whole milk (5cm3), by measuring the pH of the solution before and after adding the enzyme, keepin
Multi Media Task: Part ATable A: Organs of the dig
Multi Media Task: Part ATable A: Organs of the dig
Multi Media Task: Part ATable A: Organs of the digestive system and their functions Organ of the digestive system Physically help the digestive system Chemically help the digestive system digests foods Other Tasks Mouth The mouth mechanically breaks down the food by using mastication. The tongue rolls the food within the mouth making the mastication process fast and easier, it also breaks the food creating a larger surface area for the salivary amylase to then react to. The saliva within the mo
Stage 2: Human BiologySummative Practical: Pepsin
Stage 2: Human BiologySummative Practical: Pepsin
Stage 2: Human BiologySummative Practical: Pepsin Background Information: What are enzymes and how they work?Enzymes are necessary proteins that are crucial in the maintenance and activity of life. CITATION Amaed l 1033 (Inc, Undated). Enzymes increase the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change. All chemical reactions that occur within a living organism rely on the catalytic actions of enzymes, which is why enzymes are called Biotransformation. Curre
Lipase
Lipase
Background information: Enzymes are biological molecules (proteins) that act as catalysts and help complex reactions occur. The enzyme grabs on to the substrate at a special area called the active site. The combination is called the enzyme/substrate complex. Enzymes are very specific and don\'t just grab on to any molecule. The active site is a specially shaped area of the enzyme that fits around the substrate. The activity of enzymes is affected by three factors; temperature, concentration, and
Enzymes
Enzymes
Enzymes Competitive Inhibition competitive inhibition. Fake substrates competing with real substrates for the opportunity to bind at an active site (hence the name competitive) slows or stops enzyme function. Fake substrates look like real substrates to an enzyme\'s active site; they are, in essence, \'look-a-likes.‘ Competitive inhibitors bind the active site of an enzyme, preventing a real substrate from binding and a product from being formed. Competitive Inhibition Competitive inhibition can
Conclusions - concentration affecting lipase
Conclusions - concentration affecting lipase
Conclusions - concentration affecting lipase It is clear from the graphs, tables and statistical processes carried out that generally, increasing the volume of lipase increases the change in pH of the solution and also the rate of change of the pH of the solution. This has been proved by the increasing values of standard deviation for higher volumes of lipase, the generally larger maximum change in pH for the higher volumes of lipase and also by the shape and gradients of the graphs drawn. Alth
170208- denature, enzyme , metabolism , substrate
170208- denature, enzyme , metabolism , substrate
170208- denature, enzyme , metabolism , substrate , synthesis list three food stuffs humans have used to prepare Cells at work Living cells Although different cells carry out different specialized functions, the same basic processes are carried out by cells. They must obtain nutrients, manufacture materials for growth and repair, provide energy for movement and metabolism and eliminate wastes. The activities of cells require a variety of biological molecules to be produced and assembled into ne
The pharmaceutical company Mylan is facing more po
The pharmaceutical company Mylan is facing more po
The pharmaceutical company Mylan is facing more political pressure to confront the price hike of EpiPen after 20 US senators, including  Elizabeth Warren  and Bernie Sanders, sent an open letter on Tuesday to the company criticising its exorbitantly expensive price hikes. Reports emerged last week that the company had implemented a series of  gradual price increases  inflating the price of the drug from $56.64 to $317.82, a 461% increase in cost since Mylan acquired the rights to EpiPen i
Factors Which Influence t he Rates of Reaction
Factors Which Influence t he Rates of Reaction
Factors Which Influence t he Rates of Reaction Introduction The purpose of this lab is to research the factors which makes the rates of reaction to change. The meaning of rate of reaction is how fast it takes for a chemical reaction to occur. Some factors that affect the rate of reactions are the nature of the chemical reactant which is the chemical formation of the substance we use determines how fast it will react. The concentration of reactant which is if the reactant concentration is increa
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION The Minamata Convention on Mercury is named after Minamata, a city in Japan where serious health damage occurred as a result of mercury pollution in the mid-20th Century. Minamata is known worldwide due to Minamata disease, a neurological disorder caused by mercury poisoning. The disease was discovered in 1956. It was caused by the release of methyl mercury in the industrial wastewater from a local chemical factory, which continued from 1932 to 1968. This highly toxic chemical bio-
Antibiotic Resistance In Bacteria
Antibiotic Resistance In Bacteria
Antibiotic Resistance In Bacteria For about 50 years, antibiotics have been the answer to many bacterial infections. Antibiotics are chemical substances that are secreted by living things. Doctors prescribed these medicines to cure many diseases. During World War II, it treated one of the biggest killers during wartime - infected wounds. It was the beginning of the antibiotic era. But just when antibiotics were being mass produced, bacteria started to evolve and became resistant to these medicin
The Plant Cell
The Plant Cell
The Plant Cell Cell Wall Size: Around 1? Basic Function: * Hold the shape of the cell. * Strengthen the cell. Covering the cell membrane of the plant cell, there is the cell wall. The cell wall is composed of two layers of rigid, hard cellulose embedded in compounds like pectin and lignin. Pores in the cell wall allow molecules to pass through. The cell wall has two parts. The primary cell wall is formed during the growth of the cell. After the cell has stopped growing, a secondary cell wall for
Nutritional Facts
Nutritional Facts
Nutritional Facts The first nutritional fact most Americans learn is that iron builds strong and healthy bodies.1 The beef lobby, cereal manufacturers, bread makers, and drug companies have bombarded the public with iron being the cure-all for fatigue and iron-poor blood. People have been mislead by drug companies pushing iron supplements and by old-fashioned ideas about iron, the magical nutrient of strength. Even the cartoons of the past pushed iron as the secret ingredient in Popeye's spi
Genetic Engineering, History And Future
Genetic Engineering, History And Future
Genetic Engineering, history and future Altering the Face of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history will science be able to so deeply af
Respiratory System
Respiratory System
Respiratory System Respiratory System The main organs of the respiratory system are the lungs, trachea, bronchioles, mouth, nose and epiglottis. The accessory organs are the bladder, lungs, large intestine, kidney and pancreases. Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System The respitory system tract is divided into the upper and lower regions. The upper respoitory tract includes the nasal passages, sinuses, and the throat area where the epiglottis and larynx are located. The lungs are a pai
Spent Mushroom Waste
Spent Mushroom Waste
Spent Mushroom Waste as a Media Replacement for Peat Moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) Production , Spent mushroom waste (SMW), otherwise known as spent mushroom substrate (SMS) or spent mushroom compost (SMC), is the leftover after different flushes of mushrooms have been harvested [6]. Normally, at the end of each production cycle, “spent” (used) mushroom substrates are left abandoned or discarded. One of the major environmental problems in the mushroom producing countries re
Topic 2 IB TB questions and answers
Topic 2 IB TB questions and answers
The answers/markschemes are below each question. You can reorganize the document so that you do not see the answer/markschemes when you answer the questions. 1. Outline the process of endocytosis. (Total 5 marks) (Annotated diagram illustrating the process may be used to gain some or all the marks.) the mechanism whereby cells take in solids and / or solutions; involves the formation of vesicles; infolding of cell membrane; called phagocytosis when solids / organisms are engulfed; phagocytosis i
NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS
NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS
NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS PAIN RELIEVING DRUGS AUTHOR [Pick the date]  Pain relieving medications or better known as analgesics, are the type of drugs used to relieve pain. The analgesics work by either stopping the pain signals from reaching the brain or they alter the brain’s perception to these signals. These medications prevent the brain by not allowing the pain signals to be processed. Analgesics do not depend on anesthesia or any loss of consciousness to achieve their pain rel
High Protein Diet and Human Health
High Protein Diet and Human Health
High Protein Diet and Human Health February 8 2016 MYP Year 4 B By Naim Al-Haj Ali  Many people try to lose weight using different diets and ways, maybe by using some kind of medicines or herbs, other people try to go to the gym more to burn more fat. Some people choose high protein diets, and others choose low protein diets. But what is the difference? And how do they work? At first, to understand how the diets work, we need to understand the difference between proteins and carbohydrates. The