Unit Test Review: JFK, LBJ and Vietnam War
Academic Vocabulary:
Quarantine ultimatum disillusionment partisan politics coalition
Escalate deployment détente justify vulnerable accountable
Surpass deregulate blockade intervene refugee annex embargo
The Presidents:
_________JFK____________ was the first U.S. President to send aid to the French when fighting during the First Indochina War.
Kennedy’s domestic policy was called The New Frontier and included goals like creation of the Peace Corps, the war on poverty, a civil rights law, a program to put a man on the moon and a voting rights act.
In 1959, Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba and established a communist government. In 1960, the U.S. placed an embargo against Cuba. This means the U.S. would not allow any U.S. products to be exported to Cuba. They did this because they were trying to force a change of government control (get rid of Communism)
An event that happened in JFK’s presidency that almost led to nuclear war with the Soviets is called the Cuban Missile Crisis. This began when a U2 spy plane took pictures of silos that were being built in Cuba. This was unacceptable to the U.S. because the missiles were so close to the mainland of the U.S.
JFK’s response was to place a naval blockade around Cuba which meant that no ships could enter Cuba. This could have caused a war but the USSR turned their ships around. The US agreed to never invade Cuba and secretly agreed to remove U.S. missiles in Turkey.
President Kennedy put us on the path to put a man on the moon. The agency that was created to do this was called NASA and is in Clear Lake. We succeeded in this endeavor and on July 20, 1969 when Neil Armstrong walked on the moon and this marked a high point for the U.S. in surpassing the Soviet Union in the Space Race. However, today we cooperate with Russia in space. One long term impact of the space race is that a variety of consumer products have been created: cell phones, computers, satellites, velcro.
When Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, Lyndon Baines Johnson became president. His domestic program was called the The Great Society and had the goals of (similar to Kennedy) including poverty, urban renewal, consumer protection, broadcasting, conservation.
List four laws that were passed during this time period and what they did.
1. The Voting Rights Act of 1965
2. The Civil Rights Act of 1964
3. Medicare and Medicaid
4. Immigration Act of 1965
Vietnam:
After WWII which colonial power try to get control of Indochina? France or the French
Ho Chi Minh was a nationalist independence leader that fought this colonial power. In 1954, the First Indochina War came to an end and an agreement was signed called the Geneva Accords. This agreement ended the war and divided Vietnam at the 17 parallel line. France left Indochina and there was a promise of free elections, however those were not held. Instead ____Ho Chi Minh____ became the leader of a communist North Vietnam and ________Diem__________________ became the leader of a non-communist South Vietnam.
The belief that if one country falls to communism then neighboring countries would also fall is called ______Domino Theory_________________. This caused the U.S. to send military aid and eventually troops to help the country of South Vietnam.
The gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Johnson power to send troops to protect American lives and help South Vietnam. From 1965 to 1968, there was a large escalation of troops. This was called Americanization of the war because the U.S. was fighting most of the war with American troops.
Soldiers faced very difficult conditions. First of all the Viet Cong were very elusive. Explain two ways that they were able to fade into the landscapeViet Cong are south Vietnamese communists, hide in the ground, tunnels, foliage.
In order to uncover this elusive enemy, the U.S. dropped an herbicide called Agent Orange . Another thing that made the war difficult was press coverage. What role did the press play?
The press covered the deaths and the failed US military attempts. In 1968, more Americans began to turn against the war. This was a result of a series of battles called Tet Offensive. Even though these battles were not militarily a success, it showed that there was a credibility gap which means a gap in credible or believable information. After this time, more Americans began protesting the war. In fact, this was one of