UNDERSTANDING OF IDEAS, CHARACTERS AND THEMES- Track the development of characters rather than arguing that they are one-dimensional and fixed throughout the play. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth were not always evil. They changed evolved in the response to the circumstances throughout the play. - How did the characters evolve - Macbeth - initially valorous, brave and loyal, later excessively ambitious, filled with self-doubt, ruthless. - Lady Macbeth - initially calm and decisive, later excessively ambitious, deceptive, manipulative, unstable. - Compare and contrast characters Macbeth - compare to: - King Duncan: who was a wise, virtuous, respected king, Macbeth thought he was too soft. - Banquo: who was a reasonable and rational when he received the prophecies but he was also flawed because he did not publicly voice his suspicions of Macbeth, perhaps comfortable in the knowledge that he would father a lineage of kings. - Malcolm: Provided the assessment of Macbeth being a ‘dead butcher' but this is framed within the context of Macbeth having murdered Malcolm's father. Lady Macbeth - compare to: - The Witches: These female characters are connected in that they are all manipulative and deceptive. They also call on evil spirits in times of need. Lady Macbeth "come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts…" and the witches take guidance from Hecate. Also using the same line "Glamis thou art and cowdor and shalt be" - Lady Macduff: Who was homely, motherly and loyal to family, she also critisised her own husband who she thought was committed treason.

- Use characters to discuss themes and ideas: Macbeth - The difference between kingship and tyranny, and the corrupting power of unchecked ambition. Lady Macbeth - Females as manipulative, deceptive and tempting (females weapons)




ANALYSIS OF HOW AND WHY THE AUTHOR CONSTRUCTS MEANING- You need to display an understanding of the literary devices that Shakespeare used and the effect that these have on the construction of meaning within the play. Refer to the following motifs and symbols. - Description of the Setting: The barren heath was misty, dark and eerie which represents the supernatural aspect of the play. The wild storms and great tremors represented the violations of the natural order. - Equivocations were used to tempt, confuse, manipulate and deceive characters into expressing their latent destructive qualities. - Blood - guilt and remorse- Animals - unnatural behavior represented the violations of the natural order.- Clothing - lil-fitting positions and improperly gained statuses. - Consider the context of Jacobian England - The gunpower plot and the assassination attempt King James. Shakespeare was a "King's Man" and was providing a warning to the general populace of the dangers of regicide.
















INTERPRETATION OF THE TEXT IN RESPONDING TO THE QUESTION - Clearly state the topic at the very beginning of the essay.- Identify the key words in the topic and perceptively explore the possible discussion points.- Write a distinct topic sentence in the introduction for each of the separate argument that you will use to support your overall contention.- Each paragraph must support the overall contention. (you can write a good paragraph, but if it does not address the topic then it is irrelevant) INTERPRETATION An interpretation is a particular and specific understanding of a text. This implies that there are multiple possible interpretations of Macbeth. Mention an alternative to contrast with your suggested understanding. Eg. "It can be argued that the female characters were responsible for Macbeth's downfall, however Macbeth was both aware of, and responsible for his actions and their consequences when he said "O horror, horror, horror!" (Act 2, Scene 3, line 59) when he killed King Duncan. He clearly knew what he was doing.

















USE OF APPROPRAITE TEXTUAL EVIDENCE AND RELEVANT METALANGUAGE- Use at least one major quote per paragraph, but don't limit yourself to that. Try not to use more than 2 or 3 lines from the play per quote. - The quote must support your discussion, or in other words be appropriate - Embed the quote within your sentence rather than write, "This quote shows" - this is sloppy and clunky language. - When using specific or individual words from the play, claim them as quotes. For example: "instruments of darkness" - Metalanguage - use terms such