Timeline History of Russia 1533-1991


The Russian Empire, covering over one-sixth of the world, is
governed by the sovereignty of Czar Ivan the Terrible. The feudal
system oppresses every man, woman and child as the Czar releases "Tax
Collectors" to maintain support for the nobles in the land. Brigands
and financial extortionists persecute any lower class citizen who
refuses to help contribute to the Czar's regime.


Under Czar Peter I (Peter the Great), the Russian Empire begins
to flourish with traces of traditional social structure modifications
in the country. Observing the radical advances of western
civilizations, Peter orders the modernization of the army, creation of
a navy, encourages mercantilism and foreign trade, and gives women
more rights. Nevertheless, the Empire remains stricken in poverty over
slow reforms and the overbearing presence of feudalism. 1825-1861

The feudal system begins to fail when the goals and desires of
the common peasant cannot be achieved through such an archaic
doctrine. Various successive Czars attempt social reforms which do not
leave an impact on the country's well-being. In December of 1825, an
uprising from the populace occures when they demand changes to the
economic system. With the development of the American, French and
Spanish constitutions, the serfs now demanded the abolishment of the
monarchy dictatorship, communal ownership of land and many other civil
and social reforms. Unfortunately, their rebellion was quickly
dismantled by the Czar's military faction and the system remained in


Czar Nicholas II finally realized that his current economic
monarchy was holding back the development of the empire. He therefore
created a parliamentary system in 1905 which would decrease the number
of strikes and violent outbursts generating from the peasants. This
representative assembly (called a Duma) was convened a total of four
times during the first World War and gave legitimacy to other
political factions within the empire and would hopefully increase
civil rights.


World War I led to the abdication (resignation) of the Czar as
the people revolted against his useless monarchy. Famine, disease and
death were spreading like wildfire as the Russians aided France
against the militia of Germany during World War I. The population lost
its faith in the monarchy and installed a provisional government that
would keep the country from disintegrating. However, this government
refused to intervene during the fragile years of the war and lost its
power to a communist party called the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks, led
by Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Nikolai Lenin), overthrew the provisional
government and implemented their style of authority to the empire.
Their objectives were to lead the Russian empire into prosperity while
utilizing Karl Marx's proposed doctrine for a communal, classless
environment where the workers will be using their abilities to satisfy
their own needs. The Union was now born and the Communist Manifesto
was finally going to be activated. The C zar and his family were
captured and executed, thus ending the oppressive autocracy that had
befallen the empire for hundreds of years. Eventually, the central
government was overtaken by Lenin and his military leaders, Leon
Trotsky and Josef Stalin. Although a minority party, the Bolsheviks
decided to implement capitalistic modifications to the fragile
economy in order to aid the communistic backlash that would follow.
The New Economic Policy (NEP) created by Lenin would allow peasants to
keep a certain amount of profit for themselves, rather than having the
government subsidize all of it. Unfortunately, Lenin died just as his
policy had started to work.


The two apparent heirs to Lenin's regime were Josef Stalin and
Leon Trotsky. Although Trotsky was better suited for the position
(with his strong political inclinations towards reasonable social
adaptability), Josef Stalin assumed controlled and subsequently
ordered the exile of all apposing cabinet ministers, including
Trotsky. Anyone in the Union who objected to his decisions was sent to
Siberian prison camps or murdered. He now had full control without any
intervention from other liberal or moderate parties. He decided to
concentrate on improving military strength and building on improving
the Soviet economy, rather than follow Lenin's revolutionary goal of
dominating the world. In order to obtain the immense amount of money
needed to maintain his militia, he began a series of five year
programs which would force the average farmer to meet a quota by the
end of the harvest and then have the state subsidize all of the
production. This system, aptly named collectivization, reprimanded all
of the average