The Provisions of Convention on the Rights of the
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The Provisions of Convention on the Rights of the Child.
The International programme on Elimination of Child Labour was ILO's
response to provide direct assistance to countries to tackle child labour
and give teeth to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
made effective in 1989. Today it has 30 funders and 86 programme countries
ILO in its Report.
"The end of child labour; within reach" released in 2006 says, in 2004
there were 218 million children trapped in child labour of whom 126 million
were in hazardous work. However the number of child labourers globally fell
by 11% over the last four years, while that of children in hazardous work
decreased by 26%. (www.ilo.org/declaration)
IPEC the campaign instrument against child labour conducted by ILO
commenced in 1992 and has made several break throughs in advocacy; tackling
the worst forms of child labour; developing a learning culture and
mainstreaming child labour within the decent work agenda. ILO is also aware
of future challenges. Child labour elimination may be mainstreamed into key
development and Human Rights frame works like Millennium Development Goals
and poverty reduction strategies.
Child labor first emerged as a major public policy issue with the impact of
the industrial revolution. The first wave of industries at countries
offered several packages of intervention to overcome presence of child
labour like advocacy campaigns; public inquiries; minimum age legislation;
education provision for working children. These have been expanded,
replicated by many developing countries ILO has expanded its efforts
through IPEC programme in some 90 countries. It has been observed that
child labour declines with increase in GDP growth; improved school
attendance; reduction of absolute poverty;
The elimination of child labour is linked with provision of compulsory,
free and accessible education. Without educational opportunities it is
likely that children will enter the labour market and take on dangerous and
exploitative jobs. Though the Dakar forum of 185 countries resolved to
provide all children of primary age free schooling of quality by year 2015
and eliminate gender disparities by year 2005 much remains to be achieved.
Although concept of education for all has not taken off the ground at an
international scale, efforts are made with community groups, parents,
employers, and government officials to remove children from work and enroll
them in school. An example is efforts of an NGO(MV foundation) made in
India in state of Andrah Pradesh. It enabled 150,000 to be enrolled and
retained in schools and more than 4,000 boned labourers released and of 500
villages under project 168are free of child labour. These results were
achieved through awareness raising and demand for education of children;
support Teachers through special training; support parents to provide
alternatives to labour of child withdrawn; provide clearing schools to
prepare children for formal education.
(source: Child Labour a Global concern, www.schoolsthebestplacetowork.org)
UNICEF has been advocating education as a preventive strategy against child
(www.unicef.org/evalvatebase/file) child labour evaluate rights 27 Feb 2004
National International comments PDF.
Some ILO actions against child labour since 2002.
SCREAM stop child labour (sup poring children's Rights) through education
the arts and the medias is a community based education and social
mobilization programme that commenced in 2002 it is directed to children
and youth in some situations programme works with world Scout Movement, in
Arab States it works with UNESCO (p 29,30)
World Day Against Child Labour initiated in June 2002 is another tool.
Annually it has focused on particular issues of relevance like child
domestic labour, trafficking, elimination of child labour in mining and
quarrying . ILO Red Card to child labour has expanded campaign to sports
and removal of children from abusive sports good production.
There have been efforts to improve knowledge base on child labour. This is
linked to research data collection and field operations and surveys. (P46)
Links have been observed between child labour and globalization.
"Globalization can help reduce child labour in countries where there is a
relatively largepool of workers with at least a basic education
complemented with active social policies." A few studies have also shown
that "child labour appears to diminish as foreign direct investment
Special country projects directed at eliminating child labour have been
identified. The CSR Movement (corporate social responsibility) encourages
voluntary codes of conduct in industries where child labour may prevail
like garments, sports goods, footwear, toys. Employer organizations like
the Federation of Uganda Employers, have been actively involved in
preventing employment of child labour in agricultural sector. The Employers
Organization in Yunan Province, China
(p 70) has taken hand the arrest of trafficking women and children.
Trade Unions have joined hands against child labour in Andhara Pradesh
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