THE MISSING PIECE:
VOICE OF SMART
CITY CITIZENS
FROM PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS
TO PUBLIC-PRIVATE-CITIZEN PARTNERSHIPS
Market Analysis
Abstract
The smart city concept recognizes information and communication technologies as
drivers of economic competitiveness, environmental sustainability and general livability.
The challenge for governments, private industry, non-governmental organizations and
other stakeholders is to determine collectively how to realize a smart city vision that
meets their needs and accords with their local values. The Alcatel-Lucent Market and
Consumer Insight team explored this and other key questions, ultimately determining
that while partnership is critical, traditional public–private partnerships are not fully
equipped to execute smart city initiatives. A third player is essential to the mix:
the citizen.
Table of contents
Making cities smarter / 1
A tale of four cities / 2
The cities in brief / 2
Four kinds of initiatives / 3
Why the citizen’s voice matters / 4
Awareness of smart cities / 4
From PPP to PPCP: How to engage citizens / 6
New models, new roles / 9
Taking the smart city concept forward / 10
Methodology and additional resources / 10
How Alcatel-Lucent supports service providers / 11
Contacts / 12
References / 12
The missing piece: Voice of smart city citizens
Alcatel-Lucent Market Analysis
1
Making cities smarter
What makes a city ‘smart’? While technology is an essential part of the answer, it is
only part. The concept of the smart city is really a framework: a way to fulfill a vision of
modern urban development that can vary profoundly from place to place.
That’s why no two smart cities are bound to be exactly the same — just as no two
traditional cities are. Culture, economy, geography, history… all of these shape the vision
of what ‘smart’ means in any specific context.
What’s common, however, is the notion that ‘smartness’ enhances virtually every
dimension of city life: from democracy, healthcare and education to the economy and
environmental sustainability. The challenge for governments, private industry, non-governmental
organizations (NGOs) and other stakeholders is to collectively determine how
to realize a smart city vision that meets their needs and accords with their local values.
Figure 1. The potential impact of the smart city concept
SMART GOVERNANCE SMART PEOPLE SMART ENVIRONMENT
SMART MOBILITY SMART ECONOMY SMART LIVING
• Democratic inclusion
• Interconnecting organizations
• Improving community access
• Citizen involvement
• More consistent educational
experience
• e-education solutions
• Training to overcome
generation gaps
• Real-time environmental
monitoring
• Reducing energy consumption
• Promoting natural �resource
conservation
• Intelligent transportation
systems
• Efficient traffic management
• Car sharing/pooling
• Regional/global competitiveness
• Broadband access for all
• Rural population maintenance
• Electronic business processes
• High-quality healthcare services
• Electronic record management
• Smart home services
• Access to social services
“I would say a
smart city is a city
that focuses on
producing results
for the citizens. It
puts collaboration
first and doesn’t
worry about who
gets the credit.”
Jed Marston, Chattanooga,
Tennessee
The missing piece: Voice of smart city citizens
Alcatel-Lucent Market Analysis
2
In 2011, researchers from the Alcatel-Lucent Market and Consumer Insight team set out
to better understand the drivers behind smart city projects around the world, and to
identify best practices for implementation. That study eventually zeroed in on four cities:
Chattanooga, Tennessee; Zurich, Switzerland; Wuxi, China; and King Abdullah Economic
City, Saudi Arabia.
A key finding — and the focus of this paper — is the fact that traditional public-private
partnerships are not fully equipped to execute smart city initiatives. They are missing one
critical element: the voice of the citizen.
A tale of four cities
It would be difficult to think of four cities less alike than the ones at the center of the
Alcatel-Lucent smart cities research project: a former manufacturing stronghold in the
American south; a European capital; a Chinese ‘megacity’ whose history stretches back
to the 11th century BC; and an industrial port being built on the edge of the Red Sea.
The differences between the four were, in fact, vital to the exercise. As mentioned
previously, being a smart city does not mean being one particular kind of city: it’s
about applying smart principles in ways that suit the local economic, social and cultural
context. For this study, it was important to see just how different the cities’ smart visions
could be — and to identify, despite those differences, shareable best practices for making
the visions real.
The cities in brief
Chattanooga, USA
Once known as the ‘Dynamo of Dixie’ for its thriving manufacturing sector, decades
of heavy industry earned Chattanooga a new nickname by 1969: ‘The Dirtiest City in
America’. But Chattanooga’s civic leaders resolved to reinvent their city, first through
a focus on environmental cleanup and, more recently, through strategic investments in
high-speed broadband infrastructure. The result? Chattanooga is now known as ‘Gig City,
USA’, boasting the fastest Internet in North America. The process by which it got there —
involving public-private partnerships, strong support from