The JFK Assassination:
Conspiracy or Single-gunman?

Adolf Hitler, the Nazi dictator of Germany during World War II, once said, "The bigger the
lie, the more people will believe it." Although this may sound ludicrous, we can see many
example of this in the world's history. One example would have to be the John Fitzgerald
Kennedy assassination. For over thirty years the people of the United States were led to
believe that a single gunman shot and killed Kennedy in Dallas on November 22, 1963, at
12:30 p.m... However, in this paper, I will dispute the ancient analization of the facts
that show a single gunman was involved, and try to show that a conspiracy must have been

According to the old facts regarding the case of the JFK assassination, Kennedy was killed
by a single gunman. On November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. CST (Central Standard Time),
Kennedy was riding in an open limousine through Dallas, Texas. At this time, Kennedy was
shot in the head and neck by a sniper. He was then taken to Parkland Memorial Hospital,
where he was pronounced dead. Later, police arrested Lee Harvey Oswald, a former U.S.
Marine, at a nearby theater. By the next morning, Oswald was booked for the murder of
President John F. Kennedy. Two days later, Oswald was killed by Jack Ruby, a Dallas
nightclub owner, while he was being moved from the city to the county jail.

At a glance, the above story sounds as if this should be an open-and-shut case. After all,
according to the facts above, Oswald must have killed Kennedy. However, you must take a
deeper look into this case. Many people who witnessed the murder of John F. Kennedy
dispute the facts above, saying that they heard shots from places besides the book
depository, and other things that may contradict what is stated above. One of these

Marino, 2
witnesses, Abraham Zapruder, captured the entire assassination on his Bell and Howell eight
millimeter movie camera. This movie, cleverly called the Zapruder Film, is the single best
piece of visual evidence in this case.

In order to more clearly understand the Zapruder Film, it is necessary to break it down
into frames. The particular Bell and Howell movie camera that Zapruder was using ran at
eighteen and three-hundredths (18.3) frames per second. When using this frame system, you
must remember that all shots were actually fired several frames before the number that is
assigned to them. For example, the fatal heard wound, called Z313, was probably fired at
Z310, since it took 2-3 frames at 18.3 frames per second for the bullet to reach the
victim. Also, you must remember that sound travels at about one thousand-one hundred
(1,100) feet per second, or a little over half as fast as the Mannlicher Carcano's bullets.
When keeping this in mind, it is expected that witnesses heard the shot at some point
after the bullet passed. The following shows a break down of the frames of the Zapruder

- The Presidential limousine first comes into view at frame 133 (the starting point of this
timeline.) - The first shot at (or just before) Z187 would have passed through both
Governor Connally and the President.

Marino, 3

- The second shot, which passed above the limousine at Z284, missed the President and hit
the curb near witness James Tague. This caused his minor would.

- At Z313, the fatal shot occurs, which blew out major portions of the Presidents brain and

- A fourth shot occurred at Z323 (slightly 1/2 second after the fatal wound at Z313). Due
to the proximity of this report to the one at Z313, as well as it's more distant origin,
most witnesses were unable to hear this shot.
Thus, the above is when the bullets hit either Kennedy or Connally, or passed through the
frames of the Zapruder film (in the case of the second shot).
Of the one-hundred seventy-eight (178) witnesses at Dealey Plaza, one-hundred thirty-two
(132) said that they hear exactly three shots. If Oswald was a single gunman, it would
have taken him at least 2.3 seconds to reload his Mannlicher Carcano rifle.
However, the general consensus of the witnesses is that they heard a single shot, followed
by silence, with the second and third shots bunched together. For example, Lee Bowers, one
of the witnesses, testified, "I heard three shots, one, then a slight pause, then