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Summary: course of sociology
Sociology is the scientific study of social life, it describes and investigates social
behavior. It seeks to discover how human society has come to be the way it is,
and stress the social forces that shape peopleís lives as forces that influence
people and help shape their lives society shapes what we do, how we do it, and
how we understand what others do. Human social life is complex and
encompasses many facets of the human experience due to the complexity: the
field of sociology is subdivided into specialties.
The notion of Socialization
Process through which one learn how to be a member of a society is called
socialization; it is through socialization that people get culture, specific skills
and abilities. Socialization is a learning process that begins shortly after birth
early infancy is the context of the first stage of socialization; it is then that we
acquire language and learn the fundamentals of our culture; it is also when much
of our personality takes shape. Sociologists make a distinction between 2 steps:
primary socialization/secondary socialization. Primary socialization occurs in
infancy: mainly inside the family. This early socialization provides the
foundation of the personality through their interaction with family, they are able
to learn a great deal about what it is be a member of their society they also learn
the ability to speak their own language, to interact and communicate child learns
values and actions appropriate. Secondary socialization takes place outside the
family when individuals begin to interact more frequently with people other than
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their parents. As they get older: interaction take places place beyond the direct
control of their family. For teenager: the peer group becomes an agency of
socialization. Socialization is one of the means by which society generates
conformity socialization is intended to turn into conforming members of society
from our interaction with others: we learn how to think and feel. Socialization
impacts not only how we express our emotions but also what emotions we feel.
Social stratification
In sociology the term stratification is usually applied to studies of structured
social inequality; that is, studies of any systematic inequalities between groups
of people. When we ask why there is poverty, why some people are
disadvantaged, what chances someone born into the working class has of
achieving a middle class position, we are posing questions about social
stratification.
Social stratification is thus at the heart of macrosociology-the study of whole
societies, in comparative perspective, in an attempt to understand processes of
social ability and change. Social stratification begins with Max Weberís limiting
cases of the more traditional status-based society, for example, societies based
on ascriptive categories such as estates and castes. Status formation and class
formation represent the two poles of social integration, the ways people in a
society relate one to another. Studies of social stratification have three
objectives. The first is to establish the extent to which class or status systems
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predominate at the societal level such that they are constitutive of modes of
social action. At the most general level, social stratification is concerned in
different ways with the issues of class and status-group formation as the key to
understanding social integration; that is, the extent to which social relationships
are cohesive or divisive, and the consequences of this for social order.
Social stratification is central to the organization of every human culture. Social
equality is a fundamental aspect of most social processes. A person\'s position in
the stratification system is a predictor of his or her behavior, attitudes, and life
chances. The course analyzes the connections between social class, gender, race,
and ethnicity. Understanding social stratification helps us to understand a wide
range of social changes in the global community.
Sociologists use the term social stratification to describe the system of social
standing. Social stratification refers to a societyís categorization of its people
into rankings of socioeconomic tiers based on factors like wealth, income, race,
education, and power. Factors that define stratification vary in different
societies. In most societies, stratification is an economic system, based on
wealth, the net value of money and assets a person has, and income, a personís
wages or investment dividends. While people are regularly categorized based on
how rich or poor they are, other important factors influence social standing. For
example, in some cultures, wisdom and charisma are valued, and people who
have them are revered more than those who donít. In some cultures, the elderly
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are esteemed; in others, the elderly are disparaged or overlooked. Societies
Ďcultural beliefs often reinforce the inequalities of stratification.
Sociologists distinguish between two types of systems of stratification: closed
system and open system. Closed systems