Spent Mushroom Waste as a Media Replacement for Peat Moss in Kai-Lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra) Production , Spent mushroom waste (SMW), otherwise known as spent mushroom substrate (SMS) or spent mushroom compost (SMC), is the leftover after different flushes of mushrooms have been harvested [6]. Normally, at the end of each production cycle, “spent” (used) mushroom substrates are left abandoned or discarded. One of the major environmental problems in the mushroom producing countries remains the treatment and disposal of SMW [7]. About 5 kg of SMW are produced for each kilogram of mushroom [8]. The SMW contains nutrients which could be used for the growth of plants. These materials are generally nontoxic to plants and therefore, could be employed as soil amendment for different crops [6]. The SMW is claimed to be a source of humus formation, and humus provides plant micronutrients, improves soil water holding capacity, soil aeration, and helps maintain soil structure [9]. The SMW is already used in horticulture as a component of potting soil mixes, soil amendment to improve grass in wetlands for remediation of contaminated water, stabilizing severely disturbed soils, bedding for animals, and control plant diseases. Apart from that, SMW can be successfully used as medium for vermiculture, in agriculture or landscape to enrich soils and as a matrix for bioremediation of contaminated soils [2]. If spent mushroom waste is used in proper proportion, it can act as a peat substitute in a soilless culture [10]. In Malaysia, mushroom has been grown since early 1930 in Penang [26]. With the increasing production of mushroom, the massive amount of unused spent mushroom waste is of a huge concern. Since information on the use of spent mushroom waste as soil amendment or part of soilless media is still scarce in Malaysia, this study was deemed necessary. This present study was, therefore, designed with an ultimate aim to determine the feasibility of the replacement of peat moss by spent mushroom waste and to evaluate the effects of spent mushroom waste alone and in combination with commercial peat moss on the growth of Kai-lan (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra), a popular leafy vegetable in Malaysia. Special emphasis was given towards the feasibility of total replacement of peat moss by spent mushroom waste. H. Sendi,1 M. T. M. Mohamed,2,3 M. P. Anwar,3,4 and H. M. Saud Volume 2013.

Effect of Different Levels of Mushroom Waste (Agaricus bisporus) with or without Probiotic on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Breast Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens , In mushroom production units, large amounts of damaged, tiny, and deformed mushrooms as waste are obtained. Because this waste has a nutritional value, after drying, it can be used in the diet of broiler chickens. Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) belongs to the kingdom of Fungi, which are considered as an important source of bioactive compounds possessing a medicinal value (Breen, 1990). The use of mushroom in poultry diet enhances growth performance and reduces gastrointestinal weight in poultry (Guo, 2003). Daneshmand et al. (2011) reported that adding mushroom to broiler diet improves feed conversion ratio but not body weight gain. Mushroom also contains considerable amounts of oligosaccharides, which have beneficial effects on the growth performance of broiler chickens (Falaki
et al., 2011). It seems that the mechanism of action of fungi is similar to that of probiotic because fungi possess medicinal properties that can improve gastrointestinal function, which is due to the presence of polysaccharide compounds in the fungi (Cummings and Macfarlane, 2002). Mazaheri A1, Shams Shargh M 1, Dastar B1 & Zerehdaran S2 , 2014.

Characterization of xylanase from Lentinus edodes M290 cultured on waste mushroom logs , Extracellular enzymes from Lentinus edodes M290 on normal woods (Quercus mongolica) and waste logs from oak mushroom production were comparatively investigated. Endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase activities were higher on waste mushroom logs than on normal woods after L. edodes M290 inoculation. Xylanase activity was especially different, with a three times higher activity on waste mushroom logs. When the waste mushroom logs were used as acarbon source, a new 35 kDa protein appeared. After the purification, the optimal pH and temperature for xylanase activity were determined to be 4.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. More than 50% of the optimal xylanase activity was retained when the temperature was increased from 20 to 60 degrees C,