American Revolutions
?What people values as a nation??? Criticizing a government?s movements or decisions without receiving any punishments, going to school for better education, opening your own business to make your own profits, having a gun, or worshiping your own god are all values that we can have as a nation, called freedom. However, freedom doesn?t come from god or nature itself, but like any other progressive concept and ideals, it comes from revolutions. Therefore, America, one of the most freedom nations in the world, also earned the value of liberty through many reforms, especially the two known as, the changing in understanding of government from the Founding?s led by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and President Lyndon B. Johnson, who also switched the relationship between states and national government.
The founding of national government contents several ideals, including individual liberty as a state of liberty, the limitation of constitutional government, and common laws or the rule of laws. Individual liberty is the core of other founding ideals. It contents basic values and rights that as a member of nation should have such as the right to live and to do what he/she wants as long they don?t harm his/herself and other people?s liberty and rights around, according to John Locke, Second treaties of government, 6. ?though man in that state have an uncontroulable liberty to dispose of his person or possessions, yet he has not liberty to destroy himself, or so much as any creature in his possession, but where some nobler use than its bare preservation calls for it. The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges every one: and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind, who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions?. Moreover, to strengthen the ideal and make it fits to the real world, John Locke also stated that each man has a right to punish criminals or execute offenders, who violate liberty of people around. ?one man comes by a power over another; but yet no absolute or arbitrary power, to use a criminal, when he has got him in his hands, according to the passionate heats, or boundless extravagancy of his own will; but only to retribute to him, so far as calm reason and conscience dictate, what is proportionate to his transgression, which is so much as may serve for reparation and restraint: for these two are the only reasons, why one man may lawfully do harm to another, which is that we call punishment?. Or ?every man hath a right to punish the offender, and be executioner of the law of nature?.?. Nevertheless, if people can punish criminals as an act of liberty protection, they also violate the criminal?s liberty as they are still living in the same ideal of freedom. In the other hand, there are no any different from punishers and offenders. Thus, the ideal of making law was born in order to make the differences. ?The natural liberty of man is to be free from any superior power on earth, and not to be under the will or legislative authority of man; but only to have the law of nature for his rule.?Locke, Second Treatise, sec. 22.
Once again, to protect people freedom from the power of making laws and law itself, we claim for another ideal known as a limited government, which experienced from the system of France?s government system.? Under the ancient monarchy the king was the sole author of the laws; and below the power of the sovereign certain vestiges of provincial institutions, half destroyed, were still distinguishable. These provincial institutions were incoherent, ill arranged, and frequently absurd?. Tocqueville, Democracy in America. The idea divides the power to govern people into many branches in order to balance the power and avoid absolute power from any person.
?WHERE the legislative and executive power are in distinct hands, (as they are in all moderated monarchies, and well-framed governments) there the good of the society requires, that several things should be left to the discretion of him that has the executive power: for the legislators not being able to foresee, and provide by laws, for all that may be useful to the community, the executor of the laws, having the power in his hands, has by the common law of nature