Respiratory System

Respiratory System

The main organs of the respiratory system are the lungs, trachea, bronchioles,
mouth, nose and epiglottis. The accessory organs are the bladder, lungs, large
intestine, kidney and pancreases.

Anatomy and Physiology of the
Respiratory System

The respitory system tract is divided into the upper and lower regions. The
upper respoitory tract includes the nasal passages, sinuses, and the throat area
where the epiglottis and larynx are located.

The lungs are a pair of large , spongy organs found in the thorax lateral to
the heart and superior to the diagram. Each lung is surrounded by a pleural
membrane that provides the ling with space to expand as well as a negative
pressure space relative to the bodies exterior

The Bronchi and bronchioles is located at the interior end of the trachea,
the airway splits into left and right branches known as the primary bronchi.
The left and right bronchi runs into each lung before branching off. The main
function of the bronchi is to carry air from the trachea into the lungs.

Larynx also known as the voice box , is a short section of the airway that
connects the larynopharynx and the trachea. The larynx is located in the
anterior portion of the neck. Several structure make up the larynx and gives it
its structure.

Pneumonia and its Causes

Pneumonia is a lower respitory infection by bacterial , viral, or fungal pathogens.
Pneumonia can be acquired from the general community or from exposure in a
long term care facility. The most common symptoms of pneumonia are:

Cough (with some pneumonias you may cough up greenish or yellow mucus,
or even bloody mucus)

Fever, which may be mild or high

Shaking chills

Shortness of breath, which may only occur when you climb stair

Sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets worse when you breathe deeply or cough


Excessive sweating and clammy skin

Loss of appetite, low energy, and fatigue

Confusion, especially in older people

Symptoms also can vary, depending on whether your pneumonia is bacterial or

Causes of Pneumonia

What Causes Pneumonia?

Viruses cause many cases of
pneumonia, but bacteria are the
most common cause of pneumonia
in adults over the age of 30. Fungi
can also cause pneumonia.

Many of these germs are all around
us. They usually can't get past a
healthy person's natural defenses.
Pneumonia is most common in
those with weaker or compromised
immune systems, elderly people,
cigarette smokers, alcoholics,
and people suffering from other
diseases such as the flu.

Pneumonia Diagnosis and Prevention

Pneumonia can be hard to diagnose because it may seem like a cold or
the flu. You may not realize it's more serious until it lasts longer than
these other conditions. Your doctor will diagnose pneumonia based on
your medical history, a physical exam, and test results.

Chest X Ray-a chest x ray is a painless test that creates pictures of
the structures inside your chest, such as your heart, lungs, and blood

A chest x ray is the best test for diagnosing pneumonia. However,
this test won't tell your doctor what kind of germ is causing the

Blood Tests- Blood tests involve taking a sample of blood from a vein
in your body. A complete blood count (CBC) measures many parts
of your blood, including the number of white blood cells in the blood
sample. The number of white blood cells can show whether you have a
bacterial infection.


Amoxicillin(Amoxil) is from the same
family of antibiotics as penicillin.
AMOXIL is used to treat a range of
infections caused by bacteria. These may
be infections of the chest (pneumonia),
tonsils (tonsillitis), sinuses (sinusitis),
urinary and genital tract, skin and
fleshy tissues. AMOXIL works by
killing the bacteria that cause these
infections. It can also be used to prevent
infection. The drug is absorbed rapidly
by the gastrointestinal tract after oral
administration and is stable in the
presence of gastric acid. Common
amoxicillin side effects may include:

stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;

vaginal itching or discharge;

headache; or

swollen, black, or "hairy" tongue.

Amoxicillin cont.

Do not use this medication if you are
allergic to amoxicillin or to any other
penicillin antibiotic, such as ampicillin
(Principen, Unasyn), dicloxacillin
(Dycill, Dynapen), oxacillin (Bactocill),
or penicillin (Bicillin L-A, PC Pen VK,
Pfizerpen), and others.

Before using amoxicillin, tell your doctor
if you are allergic to cephalosporin's such
as Omnicef, Cefzil, Ceftin, Keflex, and
others. Also tell your doctor if you have
asthma, liver or kidney disease, a bleeding
or blood clotting disorder, mononucleosis
(also called "mono"), or any type of

Amoxicillin can make birth control pills
less effective

Zithromax (azithromycin)

This medication is an antibiotic used to treat certain bacterial infections. This medication
is known as a macrolide (erythromycin-type) antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of
bacteria. This medication is used to treat lung infections (pneumonia) or female pelvic infections
caused by bacteria.

Azithromycin comes as a tablet, an extended-release (long-acting) suspension (liquid) and a
suspension (liquid) to