In the pre-scientific period the mind was considered as the soul. Primitive people explain phenomena such as sleep, unconsciousness, mental illness, death and so on using the concept of soul. The first scientific understanding of the psyche emerged in the ancient world. They are reflected in the writings of philosophers, doctors, teachers.
In the ancient India the concept of the soul is revealed in the texts of the Vedas. Soul is regarded as a substance, which is inherent consciousness, eternity, the ability to work. Potentially soul has knowledge, morality, faith, unlimited energy (power) and infinite bliss. But as the soul is in an imperfect state, it is engaged in inappropriate activities and subject to suffering.
Ethical and philosophical positions of the ancient East influenced on the formation of the scientific views of philosophers of ancient Greece and Rome, where the idea of the psyche was formed in the process of consideration of man as part of nature. Democritus argued that the soul is a variety substances formed of atoms of fire and obey general laws.
Socrates considered the the soul as a set of mental properties of the individual, which is acting in accordance with the understanding of moral ideals.
Plato is the founder of the so-called dualism in psychology, according to which the material and the spiritual, physical and mental are treated as two separate and antagonistic beginnings.
According to Aristotle, the soul is an essential beginning of the only organic life, and not the material world at all.
The soul can not exist without the body, but is not limited to the body. The soul is not divided into parts, but it appears in different abilities - sensory, motor, mental.
Formed as a science, modern psychology examines the facts, laws and mechanisms of mental life of humans and animals based on existing scientific data.