Multi Media Task: Part ATable A: Organs of the digestive system and their functions

Organ of the digestive system
Physically help the digestive system
Chemically help the digestive system digests foods
Other Tasks
Mouth
The mouth mechanically breaks down the food by using mastication.
The tongue rolls the food within the mouth making the mastication process fast and easier, it also breaks the food creating a larger surface area for the salivary amylase to then react to.
The saliva within the mouth keeps the digestive system lubricated. The amylase in the saliva breaks down carbohydrates such as starches into smaller disaccharides and monosaccharide.
The tongue within the mouth rolls the food and helps with the mastication, and then guides the food into down the throat.
Oesophagus


The oesophagus uses peristalsis to help the food reach down to the stomach.
The mucosa within the oesophagus covers the walls of the oesophagus keeping them lubricated as well as the food making it easier to pass through, down to the stomach.
Stomach
The stomach stores and churns foods that enter within it from the oesophagus.

Pepsin within the stomach is activated when in contact with the stomach acids. The pepsin degrades food proteins into peptides.
The food is broken down by the stomach acids creating a larger surface area which then aids in faster process of the digestion. CITATION Theed l 1033 (Foundation, Undated)
Small intestine
The chemical break down of foods with in the stomach follows through to the small intestine and starts the absorption process.














The small intestine consists of enzymes such as trypsin, lipase, and pancreatic amylase.
The lipase within the small intestine breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol molecules. The Trypsin within the small intestine breaks down pepsin into smaller peptide chains. The pancreatic amylase breaks down maltose into glucose.
The other task of the small intestine is to aid in the digestion of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Large intestine


The other functions of the large intestine are to produce antibiotic, reduce acidity, absorb water, and vitamin, and to protect against infection. The large intestine main function is the absorption of water and electrolytes from digestive residue, and is where fermentation takes place. The enzymes from the small intestine complete digestive process and enter the large intestine and the bacteria produces vitamin b12 and vitamin k
Liver

The liver secretes bile that ends up back into the intestines. The bile aids in the digestion and absorption of fats, and also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.
Other task include the production of certain proteins for blood plasma, production of cholesterols to help carry fats throughout the body, to store and release glucose as needed, and to process haemoglobin for use of its iron content. The liver processes and filters blood. And produces chemicals necessary for digestion, synthesis of proteins and detoxification.

Pancreas
The pancreas converts the food we eat into body fuel in which we use.
The pancreas produces digestive enzyme which aid in the breaking down of lips, proteins and carbohydrates such as pancreatic amylase.
The pancreas produces the correct chemicals in the proper quantities, at the right times, to digest the foods we eat. Two main functions of the pancreas are exocrine which aids in digestion and endocrine which regulates blood sugar levels.

CITATION Theed l 1033 (Foundation, Undated)
Table B: Type of secretions and their activities
Type of secretor
Secretor
Functions of secretion
Site of action
Amylase
Salivary glands
The salivary glands make amylase to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy.
Small intestine
Pepsin
Stomach
Pepsin is an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. It is produced in the stomach and is one of the main digestive enzymes in the digestive systems of humans and many other animals, where it helps digest the proteins in food.
Stomach
Lipase
Pancreatic glands
Lipase is an enzyme the body uses to break down fats in food so they can be absorbed in the intestines.
Small intestine
Catalase
Liver
This enzymes function is to break down hydrogen peroxide (H2O) into oxygen and water.
Liver
Bile
Liver
Bile contains bile acids, which are very important for the digestion and absorption of fats and fat soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Many waste products, including bilirubin, are eliminated from the body by secretion into the bile and elimination in faeces.
Small intestine
Pancreatic amylase
Pancreas
Pancreatic amylase passes through a duct to reach your small intestine. It completes digestion of carbohydrate, producing glucose, a small molecule