1. A goal is a future expectation or desired future state. Goals are in important role of every organization. Organizations are trying to achieve goals. Activities of organizations are formed due to goals. Therefore, goals are influences on motivation. Moreover, goals are translated in objectives and policies. Objectives can be defined as ‘what’ and policies as ‘how, when, and where.’
Objectives are a part of a goal and more specific than goal. They are potential to get goals. In fact, objectives are divided into general and specific. Top management determines general objectives and specific objectives are operated in scope of general objectives.
Policies are implements of goals and objectives. They direct strategies to meet goals and objectives. For instant, policies are such as rules, plans and procedures. Policies segment roles and obligations of mangers and members of staff. They also control the behaviors of organization. Additionally, external factors such as government can affect upon the policies.
According to Scotia Airway, they may keep target for many goals. As case study, they aim to provide exceptional value for money, unparalleled comfort and convenience to its passengers, every time they are on board and also offer value added services, such as, valets to assist passengers in boarding the plane, gourmet meals and a range of in-flight services and entertainment as specific objectives. Additionally, Scotia Airways provide business class services at price that is equivalent to price of economy class services of other competitors as services goals. The investors have set an ambitious project for expansion over the next 5 years to include long haul destinations. These are some specific objectives to achieve main goals as outsourcing their airways to major business center in Eastern Europe and Middle and Far East.
Management is fundamental to effective operation of work organizations. It is also an integral part of the people-organization relationship.
A key driving force of the success of these airways is the management focus upon the level and quality of service output. Senior management agrees output targets with middle and junior managers and staff, and allow the operational planning to be determined by those managers and employees then populate the details into the plan. A culture of trust has been emphasized and developed by management and workers and this has served to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency and overall performance of business. This is leading to positive working relationship within and different departments by positive management approach and wide ranging reward policies. The company is regarded as a family-style business.

2. Organization can be viewed as open systems in continual interaction with external environment of which they are part. There are a number of sub-systems interrelating and interacting with each other: task, technology, structure, people and management. In open system, organizations take input from environment and through a series of activities transform these inputs into outputs to achieve some objectives. Therefore, environmental facts influence upon the open system. They are economics, legislations, competitions, shareholders and culture. Moreover, output are measured by goals and it will effect on input.
As Scotia Airways, for example, they take in resources such as people, finance, raw materials, premises, equipment and information from its environment as inputs and process inputs. Finally, these inputs transfer into outputs as services in regarding to achieve goals such as customer satisfaction.
3. The informal organizations arise from the interaction of people, their psychological and social needs the development of groups with their own relationship and norms of behavior. Informal organizations can exit within formal organizations.
The formal organizations are defined by Schein as:
The planned co-ordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of same common goals through the division of labor and function and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibilities.
The following are some differences of informal and formal organizations.
 Origin
 Structures
 Goals
 Control
 Influences
 Size
 Communication
 Stability
 Duties and responsibilities
 Benefits for members
4. Stakeholders are interested in and are effected by goals, operation, and activities of the organization. They have a large variety of interest on organization. For example, they are under the following roles.
1. Employees
2. Providers of finance
3. Customers
4. Community and environment
5. Government
6. Other organizations or group.
As case study, four primary of stakeholders are
Employees – Without employees, there will not be any organization. Organizations and employees need and influence each other. Responsibilities of employees extend beyond terms and conditions of