Methods Of Translation
1. There are eight types of translation: word-for-word translation, literal translation, faithful translation, semantic translation, adaptive translation, free translation, idiomatic translation, and communicative translation.
2.   Word For Word translation: < ul ><li>The SL word order is preserved and the words translated by their most common meanings. Cultural words are translated literally. The main use of this method is either to understand the mechanics of the source language or to construe a difficult text as pre-translation process. </ li>< /ul>
3.   Literal translation: < ul ><li>The SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL equivalents but the lexical items are again translated out of context. As pre-translation process, it indicates problems to be solved . </ li>< /ul>
4.   Faithful translation: < ul ><li> It attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures. It transfers cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical deviation from SL norms. It attempts to be completely faithful to the intentions and the text- realisation of the SL writer. </ li>< /ul>
5.   Semantic translation: < ul ><li>It differs from faithful translation only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, compromising on 7meaning where appropriate so that no assonance, word play or repetition jars in the finished version. It does not rely on cultural equivalence and makes very small concessions to the readership. While 'faithful' translation is dogmatic, semantic translation is more flexible. </ li>< /ul>
6.   Communicative translation: < ul ><li> It attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both language and content are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. </ li>< /ul>
7.   Idiomatic translation: < ul ><li> It reproduces the message of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms. </ li>< /ul>
8.   Free translation: < ul ><li> It reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content without the form of the original. Usually it is a paraphrase much longer than the original. </ li>< /ul>
9.   Adaptation: < ul ><li> This is the freest form of translation mainly used for plays and poetry: themes/ characters/ plots preserved, SL culture converted to TL culture & text is rewritten. (From A Textbook of Translation by P. Newmark ) </li></ ul >

Shakespeare in German
Начало формы

Elizabethan Deutsch
Strange as it may seem, the German Shakespeare Society (die Deutsche Shakespeare-Gesellschaft, DSG) is the world's oldest! Founded in 1864, on the occasion of the Bard's 300th birthday (zum 300. Geburtstag vom Barden), the Society's headquarters are in Weimar, a city also closely associated with the real "German Shakespeares," Friedrich Schiller and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
Divided by the Cold War and the Berlin Wall for three decades, Germany's oldest literary society successfully managed its own reunification in 1993.
Each year in April (the month of Shakespeare's birth and death) the DSG sponsors its "Shakespeare-Tage" (Shakespeare Days), an international event held in either Weimar or Bochum, the former western headquarters, in alternate years. The Society also promotes other meetings, seminars and research, and publishes a book-like annual journal, Das Shakespeare-Jahrbuch, in English and German. (See the DSG Web site link on our Shakespeare links page for more about the Deutsche Shakespeare-Gesellschaft.)
»Sein oder Nichtsein—das ist die Frage!«"To be, or not to be, that is the question."
The German fascination with Shakespeare began in the early 1700s when English repertoire companies crossed the Armelkanal (English Channel) to perform the Bard's plays all across Germany and Europe. Translations of Shakespeare's words have become so much a part of the German language, that Germans can be forgiven if they sometimes seem to forget that William Shakespeare was not WilhelmShakespeare!
In fact, the Germans take a back seat to no one when it comes to honoring the greatest English poet of all time. They do so by performing and attending his plays (more performances each year than in Britain!), using his words and phrases, and by joining Shakespeare clubs and associations. There's even a replica of the Globe Theatre in Neuss, Germany, not far from Düsseldorf.
Each season in Neuss the German Globe offers a