Machiavelli's Italy - A Renaissance Simulation

This activity is a simulation. A simulation is like a game, but
instead of a random subject, like word meanings or running around a board
faster than someone else, a simulation uses historical variables and player
decisions, coupled to a probability system, and the goal of the simulation
is to achieve an outcome that represents the possibilities of history by
manipulating successfully all of the aforesaid possibilities. In this
simulation, you and a partner(s) will be controlling one of the historical
city-states of the Italian Renaissance period, and attempting to dominate
southern Europe politically, economically, and militarily. You will have a
myriad of options available to you to do that, all of which were prevalent
and possible at the time. It is an excellent way to understand, in as real
a way as possible, the turbulent times of the 1400-1500s, and the
difficulties associated with ruling a Renaissance city-state. It is one
thing to study it; it is another to do it. Students will also gain a much
keener sense of the problems associated with the practice of diplomacy and
realpolitik in any time, as the vagaries of human nature and random events
can not be perfectly, if even somewhat predicted.
The rules are written like game rules. Each section deals with a
different aspect of the simulation. We will do some practice, and then
advance to the actual playing of the simulation. You will have to read
through the rules, and then practice a turn to get the feel of how it
works, and the mechanics of it will become easier as you try different
things out. Welcome to Machiavelli's world of 1450.

I. Object of the simulation/how to win.
II. Definitions of terms used in the rules
III. Turn sequence
A. Basic
B. Detailed
IV. Control of territories and cities on the board
V. Units in the simulation: functions, movement
A. Armies: capabilities, uses, and possibilities
B. Cavalry: capabilities, uses, and possibilities
C. Fleets: capabilities, uses, and possibilities
D. Garrisons: capabilities, uses, and possibilities
E. Mercenaries: contracting, use, management,
capabilities, and possibilities
F. Miscellaneous: pirates, other armies of intervention,
captured units
VI. Unit Orders and explanations
VII. Play Cards: explanations
Persons of Influence
Historical Events
Papal Offices

I. OBJECT OF THE SIMULATION: to have control of 20 provinces and their
cities, including all of one's own, with none in rebellion or containing
any Units not your own. If this condition isn't met by a
certain or agreed upon time limit, the victor is that player with the most
Influence Points.

Army - a square piece representing a citizen army of about 1,000 men,
marked with the coat of arms
of the controlling power
Assassination - the killing of a head of family, ruler of a city-
state/nation, or a person of influence by a spy
Cards - a set of cards that are used in the game to introduce elements into
the simulation that
historically had major effects on political, economic, diplomatic,
and military outcomes
City - a built up area within a province that is controlled by a major
family of the Renaissance period,
provides income, houses Persons of Influence and garrisons, and
provide better protection against outbreaks of plague.
Contract - an agreement between two Renaissance states in the simulation
that is written down and includes indemnities for non-performance that
are kept in escrow by the Umpire
Control - a condition where some asset in the simulation is held solely by
one player, and is defined
differently for each asset
Defection - Families, represented by cards in the simulation, may defect to
a neutral state or into other
players' control depending upon acts or circumstances that arise
during the simulation
Die Roll Modifier - something in the simulation that positively or
negatively affects the chances of
something happening that is determined by a roll of a die or dice.
Diplomacy - that part of a simulation turn when players from different
Renaissance states may engage
in diplomacy/negotiations
Dowry - a cash payment made from one family, held by one player(s), to
another family, held by another
player(s), in order to write a Marriage Order.
Elites - famous people from the Renaissance period who help a player build
Influence, which may be used in Papal Elections.
Escrow - an account held by the umpire that represents deposits made by
players as a condition of a
contract, as the great banking houses of Italy did at that time
Family - a representation