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Alternative Assignment: Literature Review on Negotiation
Negotiation needs to define their process where parties to a potential conflict attempt to resolve that conflict by coming to an agreement. Negotiation is generally thought to be a compromise which is aimed at benefiting our interests as much as possible. It therefore is often associated with conflict resolution within organisations and occurs 'when people with differing needs or goals are prevented - or perceived that they are being prevented - by others in achieving these needs or goals' (Browaeys andPrice 2008, p301). As results , the ability to negotiate and the interpersonal skills needed to manage negotiation are becoming one of the most important elements for contemporary managers to master (Volkema et al 2013). Understanding the numerous approaches to negotiation and conflict resolution is therefore vital to a successful manager.
The process of negotiation is generally broken down into two very different approaches. The first of all, It called distributive negotiation, which is negotiator will attempt to win as much as they can at the expense of the other negotiator . This is a 'win-lose' situation where one negotiator coerces the other to agreement ( Thorn 2009). The secondly, Integrative or cooperative negotiation which is both negotiators work together to search for the best settlement possible for both sides and joint problem solving exercise rather than adversarial fight. More common when parties share some common ground and trust each other . Furthermore, A ‘win-win’ situation in that case the trade union and the employer will engage in a process of negotiation and an agreement is made in which the employees gain a pay rise (win for the trade union) and in which the employers also gain because the pay rise is linked to increased productivity (so they also win)(Thorn,2009).
Getting to Yes as defined by Fisher, R. and Ury, W. (2012).The method of negotiation base on produce a wise agreement, efficient and improve or at least not damage the relationship between the parties. Positional bargaining is defined as the bargaining over positions so that each side takes a position, argues for it and makes concessions to reach a compromise. Besides, positional bargaining used to take and give and produces unwise positions, inefficient and Endangers ongoing relationships (Fisher, R. and Ury, W2012) .
In addition, there are five stages in the negotiating process such as preparation, discuss, propose, bargain, agreement. To begin with preparation, the content is most crucial stage of any negotiation. The preparation stage is where a negotiator sets overall objectives for the negotiation and then collects and marshals facts to construct a case that will help achieve the objectives set. This means collecting relevant information, which includes issues comprising the outer and inner context of the case (Watson and Reissner 2014).Moreover, aims and objectives of preparation to identify at least 3 objectives including opening position (the ideal outcome you would like) ,target position (realistic outcome you would settle for) and Fall-back position (the lowest outcome you would settle for).In the second, discuss with employees .It is mean that each side states their position and confirm all of the items that both parties want to negotiate about. Then, the propose of negotiating aim is to indicate that each side is moving towards the other or is willing to do so and first tentative offers and counter offers are made The aim is to indicate that each side is moving towards the other or is willing to do so. Moreover, Bargaining is where a likely settlement point is identified within the bargaining arena. The process involves packaging concessions which you may consider exchanging with the other side to reach an acceptable settlement point while staying within your bargaining arena. All concessions offered during this stage must be made conditional on obtaining something in return. The consequently , As the bargaining process moves forward it may be useful to call adjournments, which allows you to check back that you are achieving what you want out of the negotiations and, more importantly, that the likely settlement point remains within your bargaining arena and above the bottom line set at the preparation stage.(Thorn,2009)
Lastly, agreement which is sets out clearly what has been agreed and clarifies any misunderstanding .Should cover the parties