Lecture #1
Introduction: What is the Third World?
Nations Unaligned with Either NATO or the Warsaw Pact
—Won't work; could include Yugoslavia and even the People's Republic of China
The Decolonizing World
—Won't work; must include Egypt, Thailand, and other nations that were never colonies
The Developing World
—Won't work; misleading in terms of power dynamics and ethnocentric
The Global South
—Won't work; could include Australia and New Zealand—and Antarctica!
The "Dominoes"
—"Domino theory" coined by Eisenhower in 1954, anticipated by Acheson at the inception of the Cold War
—Presents the world as a zero-sum game in which any gain for communism constitutes a loss for democracy and free enterprise
Two Phenomena Define the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: the Cold War and
the Ascent of the Third World
The Third World profoundly shapes how the communist and capitalist hegemons compete
This competition alters the domestic environment in Third World nations
Parallel struggles: the civil rights movement in the United States and Third-World struggles for autonomy
Unfolding of the Cold War
Conflict begins in Europe but sees its first fireworks in Asia
The Middle East becomes an important theater, for strategic and economic reasons
The East-West clash comes to Latin America and Africa later, but still exerts tremendous pressure on how states in those regions develop
Lecture #2
"Like Apples in a Barrel . . .": Origins of the Cold War
I) The Irresolvable Question of Poland
The United States wants a democratic Poland, with representatives of the Polish government in exile ["London Poles"] included
—views Poland as an outpost of European civilization against communists
The Soviet Union wants a pro-Soviet Poland, run by the puppet "Lublin Poles"
—views Poland as the route through which Germany has attacked
Stalin breaks his promises at Yalta, clamps down on Poland and the rest of Eastern Europe
Early Cold War Crises
Truman takes a hard line on Poland, but ultimately has to back down
Conflicting agendas at Potsdam
Soviets retreat from Iran and Turkey
"Support Free Peoples": Truman Sounds the Alarm
Britain can no longer provide aid to the anti-communist governments in Greece and Turkey; America is Britain's obvious successor
Truman portrays the struggle as one of good versus evil
Congress coughs up the money; makes an historic commitment
—the U.S. intervenes, during a time of general peace, in the affairs of people outside North and South America
"Two Halves of the Same Walnut": Truman's Guns and Marshall's Butter
Economy of Western Europe seems on the verge of collapse
Marshall invites the Europeans to draw up their own plan
U.S. Congress opposes the Marshall Plan; Republicans don't want to give Truman a foreign policy triumph in an election year or encourage socialist schemes in Europe
"A Shock through the Civilized World": The Coup in Czechoslovakia
Prompts the Senate to endorse the Marshall Plan
Truman drastically expands the power and discretion of the CIA
Foreign Policy Setbacks of 1949
The Soviets explode an atomic bomb
China falls to the communists
America's Twin Responses to the Soviet A-Bomb and the "Loss" of China
Truman approves development of the H-Bomb
National Security Document 68 (NSC-68)
Advocates a quadrupling of U.S. military spending
Assumes the worst of Soviet foreign policy
Demands a global U.S. response to the Soviet threat
So drastic in its implications that implementation appears unlikely—until the Korean War breaks out
Lecture #3
"The Greece of the Far East": Korea
Roots of the Conflict
The United States and the Soviet Union eject the Japanese from Korea in 1945, divide the peninsula at the 38th Parallel
The Cold War hardens, obliterating the possibility for Korean unification
Kim Il-sung heads the communist People's Democratic Republic of Korea in the North
Syngman Rhee heads the anti-communist Republic of Korea (ROK) in the South
Civil war rages in Korea from 1945 to 1950—long before America's "Korean War" starts
Why do the North Koreans invade the South on June 25, 1950?
The communists are encouraged by Truman's "Europe-first" strategy and neglect of South Korea
Acheson's "defense perimeter" speech also gives Kim reason to assume that the U.S. will not assist the South
Stalin gives his assent to the invasion
North Korea nearly overruns the South within days; the "Free World" faces a major setback
Truman's "Police Action": The Inception of the Imperial Presidency
Truman does not consult with members of Congress before ordering air and naval forces to South Korea—or before committing American troops to the land mass of Asia
Few in Congress object, but a fatal precedent has been set
Although termed a U.N. "police action," the conflict