LAND LAWS PROJECT ON : CONSOLIDATION OF HOLDINGS












SUBMITTED BY:
STUTI PRIYA OJHA
ENROLL No.- 00516503813
B.A.LL.B.
7 TH SEMESTER
SECTION-B





Contents
TOC \o "1-3" \u INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc466371104 \h 3
WHAT IS LAND CONSOLIDATION? PAGEREF _Toc466371105 \h 4
Agricultural holdings PAGEREF _Toc466371106 \h 4
NEED FOR CONSOLIDATION OF HOLDINGS PAGEREF _Toc466371107 \h 7
METHODS OF CONSOLIDATION OF HOLDINGS: PAGEREF _Toc466371108 \h 8
LEGAL ASPECT OF LAND CONSOLIDATION IN INDIA PAGEREF _Toc466371109 \h 12
STATE LAWS FOR CONSOLIDATION OF HOLDINGS PAGEREF _Toc466371110 \h 13
BASIC PREMISES OF THE STATE LAWS PAGEREF _Toc466371111 \h 13
CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF CONSOLIDATION OF HOLDINGS INDIA- Is it a success or a failure? PAGEREF _Toc466371112 \h 15
WHAT STEPS CAN BE TAKEN? PAGEREF _Toc466371113 \h 18
CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc466371114 \h 20
BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGEREF _Toc466371115 \h 21









INTRODUCTION
Agriculture sector plays a critical role for livelihood gains for two-thirds of India's population, for sustained national growth, and is pivotal for attaining food security for the nation. However since colonial rule the agriculture sector has experienced a major setback in its road to development , despite being one the major economic sector, agriculture still remains neglected and underdeveloped. This calls for an extensive reform in this sector. Land reform constitutes the most important package of measures to improve the economic condition of agricultural tenants. Thus, two main objectives of land reform are: (i) to change the agrarian structure in a way as not to obstruct but promote the growth of agriculture; and (ii) to replace the old land system by a new one, free from the exploitative features which characterized the former.
In short, growth and social justice are the two basic objectives of land reform in India .The important land reform measures adopted in India during the plan period are:
Abolition of intermediaries.
Tenancy reforms to regulate fair rent and provide security to tenure.
Ceilings on holdings and distribution of surplus land among the landlords.
Consolidation of holdings and prevention of their further fragmentation and
Development of cooperative farming.
Thus Indian Land Reforms strategy had consolidation of holding as one of its important measure, the reason being, while Indian agriculture faces many challenges across its value chain, at the core of these challenges are the small and highly fragmented farm holdings. This has enormous implications on the production side. The small size of agricultural land holdings is an impediment in increasing agricultural productivity, enhancing farmer competitiveness and incomes, ensuring higher degree of farm mechanization and, systematic and adequate application of various agricultural-inputs. There fragmentations have resulted in decreased opportunities to earn a decent living in agricultural sector. This calls for an integrated rural development which must take into account the land tenure structure consisting of numerous small and fragmented farms.
The fragmentation of land implies that a single farm consists of numerous discrete parcels, often scattered over a large area. It results in inefficient use of soil, capital, and labour in the form of boundary lands and boundary disputes and litigation costs. Efficiency of cultivation is considerably reduced and also prevents land improvement. Consolidation refers to reorganization of fragmented holdings into one plot. Here consolidation of land indicates bringing the scattered small plots of land into a compact block and then dividing the compact block among the fanners in a compact manner. In India consolidation was initiated on a voluntary basis and later on it was made compulsory.



WHAT IS LAND CONSOLIDATION?
Land Consolidation refers to the process of converting many small and fragmented holdings into one big farm.In this process, farmers are convinced to get, one or two compact farms in place of their fragmented farms. The fragmented land holdings are pooled and then re-allotted them in a way that each gets a single farm of having same total size and fertility like his previous fragmented landholdings.
The origin of this concept can be traced back to Denmark. The first consolidation initiatives of Denmark in the 1750s was part of a profound social reform to free people from obligations to noble landlords by establishing privately-owned family farms. And it resulted in improved agricultural productivity and marked the beginning of new era of agricultural reforms to tackle the issue fragmentation and sub-division of agricultural hodings.
Agricultural holdings
In order to understand, consolidation of holdings, first we need to understand what an agricultural holding is. The term ‘agricultural holding' indicates average size of