Jaraya Johnson
GSPIA- Approaches to Conflict Resolution
Prof. Kerber

Israeli-Palestinian conflict- Declaration of Principles
The tensions between the Israeli-Palestinian is not something new through history the two have not always seen eye to eye. Issues have been arising between the two states since the beginnings of the Zionist-Jewish immigration to Palestine under the British protection. However, the most recent and long going conflicts is one that began with the declaration of Israel on Palestinian land in 1948.
The Board
Due to the escalating persecution of Jews in Europe , thousands of Jewish immigrants began fleeing to what was known as the Ottoman Empire, until its defeat in World War I. At that time the British than took control of Palestine, or at the time was called the British-mandate Palestine. From 1918 to 1948, Britain governs over the Jews and Arabs within this territory. In 1921 Britain gives an area of land located east of the British-mandate over to Emir Abdullah, creating the area that is now known as Jordan. Soon after the very first huge act of intercommunal violence of the mandate period breaks our along the border of Jaffa-Tel Aviv. This event known as May Day ends with a lot of Jew and Arab deaths. In 1929, sixty-seven Jews were killed as the second major intercommunal violence breaks-out in Jerusalem and spreads throughout the county. An erupting of events breakout in 1936 in response to the death of Sheikh Izz al-Din al- Qassam by the British, the protest lasted until 1939, when the British place a ban on land sales to Jews, in effort to gain Arab support through the war with Germany. In 1947 the General Assembly of the United Nations made a recommendation for the British-mandate Palestine be separated into two different states, one for Jews and one for Arabs. All the surrounding Arab states rejected the partition plan, however due to certain tactical and strategic reasons Zionist leaders accepted the plan for partition; while Palestinians felt the partition to be extremely unrepresentative of the diverse demographic distribution of Jews and Arabs that resided in Palestine at the time. In May of 1948, Zionist leaders proclaimed the state of Israel. Fighting breaks out between the newly declared state of Israel and the surrounding Arabs. The war is understood by the Israelis as the "War of Independence" and is known as "the Catastrophe," by the Palestinians. At this time, seven-hundred thousand Palestinians decide to leave, allowing Israel to take control over large pieces of land, which included over five-hundred Palestinian villages. In that same year Jordan establishes control over the West Bank with the tacit agreement of Israel and Egypt establishes control of the Gaza Strip, at that time the control of Jerusalem is split between Israel in the west and Jordan in the east. The UN General Assembly passes Resolution 194, which states that any Palestinian refugees who want to return to their homes will be permitted to do so and any who do not should be compensated by the state of Israel. Following an Arab League decision, 422 Palestinian national figures meet in Jerusalem under the chairmanship of Ahmad Shuqeiri, who founded the Palestine Liberation Organization and laid down the structure of the Palestine National Council, the PLO Executive Committee, the National Fund and the Palestine Liberation Army. The meeting also approved a Palestinian national covenant and basic law. June 5, 1967 in a span of six days Israel conducts an attack against Egypt and gains control over the Sinai Penisnsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt, the Golan Heights from Syria, and the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, at this time Israel almost triples in size. In response to this war, the UN Security Council passes Resolution 242, which called for the "withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict; termination of all claims or states of belligerency and respect for and acknowledgement of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every state in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force." This resolution is the basis for all subsequent peace negotiations between Israel, Palestinians, and surrounding Arab