Infancy: A Solid Start
• Birth-3 years old

Physical Growth
1. Nervous System
a. Brain growth
b. Basic unit of neuronal communication is neurons
c. Plasticity – Can grow or lose synaptic connections
d. Sleep 16-17 hours in a 24-hour period
• At 4 months can sleep through night
e. Baby fitful, restless, breathing/heart rate/blood pressure increase in sleep
f. SIDS is leading cause of death during infancy, baby just stops breathing
2. Motor Development
a. Babies born with reflexes for survival
• Rooting – head turns toward what touches cheek, looking for food
• Stepping – looks like walking when you hold them in air
• Babinski – toes fan out when something touches foot
• Startle – noises, put baby down fast, the arms/legs shoot out and baby shakes, is a safety alert
• Sucking
b. Gross motor skills(big)
• Rolling over – 3 months
• Sitting – 5 months
• Pulling to stand – 7 months
• Cruising – 7-8 months
• Walking – 12 months
3. Sensory Development
a. Touch is most highly developed at birth
b. Skin-to-skin contact important
c. Babies pain very developed
d. Vision is one of the last things to development; not much distance between eyes or ears
e. Depth perception develops around 2 months; need info from 2 eyes unlike linear perception

Principles of Growth
1. Cephalocaudal Stage
a. Head-to-tail development
b. Vision/hearing develop before walking
2. Proximodistal Stage
a. Development in trunk happens first
3. Hierarchical Integration
a. Simple skills developed first, then skills pull together to make complex skills
4. Independence of Systems
a. Each system has its own schedule/system of development

Nutrition
• Takes calories to fuel growth
1. Breast vs. Bottle
a. Breastmilk is best for baby’s health
b. At least first full year; more the better
2. Solids
a. Introduce halfway through first year
b. Make supplement, not primary food source
3. Benefits of Breastfeeding
a. Baby
• Develop immune system
• Protect from allergies
• Boosts intelligence
• Protect from obesity
• Lower risk of SIDS
• Infants more responsive to mother
• Protects from respiratory illnesses, ear infections, diarrhea
• Breastmilk is easier to digest
• Influences cognitive growth for intelligence
• Better jaw/facial development
b. Mother
• Offers significant bonding advantages for child/mother
• Lower rate of ovarian and breast cancer prior to menopause
• Produces endorphins in brain
• Helps recovery/reduces risk of having another child right away
• More convenient
• Reduces stress level/risk of post-partum depression
• Helps lose weight

Cognitive Growth
1. Piaget
a. Stages of Sensory Motor Stage
2. Developmental Scales
a. Different scales used
b. Approach to testing


Language
1. Prelinguistics
a. Crying, cooing, babbling, gestures
b. Crying = communication
c. Babies understand language before they can speak
d. Cooing at 2-3 months(vowels)
e. Babbling around 6 months(consonants + vowels)
f. Gestures/first words at beginning of first year
2. Beginning Speech
a. Holophrases – single phrases that stand for a sentence
b. Telegraphic Speech
• 18 months-2 years
• Putting noun and verb together
• Short 2-3 word sentences
c. Underextension – unable to relate; one word represents only one thing
d. Overextension – one word representing variety of things; over-generalization

Socio-Emotional Development
1. Emotions
a. Primary Emotions
• Biologically based
• Universal/born with
• All babies express/recognize
• Joy, anger, fear, surprise
b. Stranger Anxiety
• 6-9 months
• Baby can recognize people (Cognitive development)
• Afraid/anxious around strangers
c. Separation Anxiety
• 7-8 months
• Anxious/fear when leaving primary caregiver
d. Development of Self
• 18-24 months
• Self recognition
• Now know they exist as a person
e. Social Referencing – looks to others to know how to act
2. Attachment
• Connection between infant and main people in child’s life
a. Ainsworth
• Ainsworth Strange Situation – sequence of staged episodes that illustrate the strength of attachment between child/mother
• Infants respond with one of four patterns
A. Secure Attachment
a. Causes better grades, quality relationships, makes transition from adolescence to independence easier, better love relationships/marriages
b. Mother is home base; infant at ease when mother is present; immediately returns to mother to seek contact
c. 2/3rds of American 1 year olds
B. Ambivalent Attachment
a. Combination of positive/negative reactions
b. Show distress/anger when mom leaves
c. 10-15% of 1 year olds
d. Adults prone to multiple partners/marriages
C. Avoidant
a. Don’t seek proximity; aren’t distressed when mom leaves
b. Avoids mom when she returns
c. 20% of 1 year olds
d. Adults are distrusting/uninterested in relationships
D. Disorganized-Disoriented
a. Inconsistent/contradictory behaviors
b. Least securely attached
c. 5-10% of 1 year olds
b. Harlowe
• Set up two mother figures
A. Wire w/ food
a. Only went to for food
B. Terrycloth w/ no food
a. Preferred
• Added stressful situations
• Contact Comfort – need to be physically held/touched; need never leaves us
• Severely disrupted attachment can suffer from:
A. Reactive Attachment Disorder – psychological problems in forming relationships/attachments, results in feeding difficulties, unresponsiveness, failure to thrive; result of abuse/neglect