History Notes:
October 28th, 1886 was the dedication of Liberty enlightening the world.
Idea for statue originated in 1865 from Edouard de Laboulaye.
Statue of Liberty looked as America's most revered national icon.
By the end of the civil was and the early twentieth century, the USA had a large economic
By 1913 the USA had 1/3 of the world's industrial output. More than Great Britain, France, & Germany together.
Btwn 1870 & 1920 almost 11 million americans moved from farm to city to work in factories.
Railroad made the "second industrial revolution" possible.
In 1886 railroads adopted a SNG or the distance separating 2 rails.
By the 1890's five lines transported manufactured goods. The railroads made time itself
In 1883, major companies divided the nation into 4 time zones that are still used today.
Opening of Atlantic Cable in 1866 made it possible to send electrical telegraphs between USA and Europe.
Thomas A. Edison opened the first electric generating station is Manhattan in 1882.
Nikola Tesla developed an electric motor using the system of alternating current that passed the challenges of using electricity for commercial and industrial purposes.
World economy suffered downturns I the 1870's and 1890's. From 1873 to 1897 it was first labeled as the Great Depression (Before 1930's).
Businesses established legal devices whereby the affairs of several rival companies were managed by a single director. (Trust).
Andrew Carnegie wanted to establish a steel company that incorporated vertical integration.
John D. Rockefeller is known for enormous wealth. (Clerk for a Cleveland merchant).
Rockefeller began with Horizontal expansion to draw rival firms out. Arranging secret deals with railroad companies.
Robber barons are people who wielded power without any accountability in an unregulated marketplace.
"Miner's freedom" consisted of elaborate work rules that left skilled underground workers free of supervision on the job.
Btwn 1880 & 1900 35,000 workers died in mine and factory accidents on avg.
1888 Chicago Times published a series called "City Slave Girls" showing bad conditions for working women in factories.
Most of the wealthiest Americans in the 1890's lived an aristocratic lifestyle.
"Gilded" means covered with a layer of gold. Could be deceptive.
Working class could not vote until passage of Reform act of 1884.
In three of the five presidential elections between 1876 and 1892, the margin separating the major candidates was less than 1 percent of the popular vote.
the Civil Service Act of 1883 created a merit system for federal employees, with appointment via competitive examinations rather than political influence.
Congress established the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to ensure that the rates railroads charged farmers and merchants to transport their goods were "reasonable" and did not offer more favorable treatment to some shippers.
Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, which banned all combinations and practices that restrained free trade.
the labor movement, revitalized during the Civil War, demanded laws establishing eight hours as a legal day's work.

Founded in 1867, the Grange claimed more than 700,000 members by the mid-1870s. Its members called on state governments to establish fair freight rates and warehouse charges.