Give Me Liberty - Chapter Three
Global Competition and The Expansion of England's Empire
The Mercantilist Syst em
Principles of the mercantilism- gov should regulate econ activity (so more gold and silver get in than out) as to promote national power; it should encourage manufacturing and commerce by special bounties, monopolies, etc.
T he role of the colonies in mercantilist system was serve mother country's interests by producing raw materials and importing manufactured good from home.
Navigation laws-tobacco, sugar had to be transported in English ships and sold in English ports (then could be re-exported to foreign markets); Most European goods imported into colonies had to be through English ships, custom duties were paid.
Importance- enabled English merchants, shipbuilders, manufacturers, sailors to benefit from colonial trade; gov received taxes; as a member, Americans colonies benefited.
The Conquest of New Netherland
New York was originally New Netherland, surrendered by Dutch to English during the Anglo-Dutch war ; Charles II=>awarded it to James, duke of York (brother) to rule as pleased.
Explain the growth and significance of New York.
Military - minor to an important imperial outpost, launched operations against French
Commercial - a seaport trading with the Caribbean and Europe
Population - 9,000 Europeans to 20,000 by 1685
New York and the Rights of Englishmen and Englishwomen
What were the Dutch terms of surrender?
Religious Groups - Respect their religious toleration
Ethnic Groups - Respect the property holding of the colony's ethnic communities
Explain women's rights in New York
Under Dutch rule - male were more dominant in business
Under English Rule - women could become traders, do business in their own name, could inherit husband's property when he dies.
T he English was restrictive toward blacks; free blacks were expelled from many skilled jobs.
The benefits of landed elites- gained immense land grants, political influence
New York and the Indians
Explain the relationship between the English and the Iroquois Confederacy.
Initial contact - English rule strengthen Iroquois Confederacy, formed Covenant Chain- support each other (helped British attack French and other Indian tribes).
After 1680s - after French and natives attacked Iroquois , Iroquois became neutral planning to play Europeans nations against one another, profited from fur trade.
The Charter of Liberties
Englishmen complaint they were denied the right to consent to taxation regarding their liberties
Charter of Liberties and Privileges - held every 3 years between property owners and freemen of New York City, reaffirmed traditional English rights
The Charter an assertion of dominance by the English when English established the principle of "liberties" to which New Yorkers were entitled were those Englishmen enjoyed at home.
The Founding of Carolina
Carolina was d iscovered when Charles II awarded 8 proprietors to establish a colony north of Florida, then the 1 st settlers arrived in 1670 discover Carolina, "colony of a colony."
Colonist relations with Indians not friendly, they enslaved and sent natives away.
The lures for settlers - provided and elected assembly, religious toleration and land grants
I nt roduction of plantation slavery- Planters discovered staple and rice would make them wealthier and became the epicenter of mainland slavery.
The Holy Experiment
Identify the origins of Pennsylvania .
William Penn was the proprietor of Pennsylvania
Importance- He believed in religious freedom, coexist with Indians
Quaker Liberty
Identify the Quaker principles.
Equality - blacks, women, and Indians were equal individuals
Liberty - universal entitlement, not the possession of any single person
Indian Relations - peaceful, treated Indians with consideration (unique in colonial time), buy land from Indians not take
Warfare - Quakers were peaceful, came to America unarmed, didn't establish military, protected by local Indians from other tribes who try to take over
Religious freedom - "religious Uniformity", rights to worship voluntarily
Land in Pennsylvania
Penn created a gov in which an appointed council to originate legislation and an assembly elected by male taxpayers and "freemen" (owners of 50 acres for indentured servants, 100 acres for free immigrants)- made majority of male population able to vote
It attra cted settlers by its freedom, religious toleration, healthy climate inexpensive land
Succeeded in attracting settlers but eventually coming into conflict with Indian's policy
Origins of American Slavery
Englishmen and Africans
Describe English cultural perceptions.