Factors Which Influence t he Rates of Reaction


Introduction
The purpose of this lab is to research the factors which makes the rates of reaction to change. The meaning of rate of reaction is how fast it takes for a chemical reaction to occur. Some factors that affect the rate of reactions are the nature of the chemical reactant which is the chemical formation of the substance we use determines how fast it will react. The concentration of reactant which is if the reactant concentration is increased, it will increase the rate of reaction. The temperature , if the temperature increases so does the reaction. The surface area in reaction , rate of reaction occurs faster in solids or liquids. The catalyst , by lowering the activated energy, a catalyst will increase the rate of reaction.

Materials
Goggles
Zinc (Zn)
Sulfuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 )
Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
Acetic acid (CH 3 COOH)
Phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 )
Hydrogen Peroxide (H 2 O 2 )
Copper (Cu)
Magnesium (Mg)
Lead (Pb)
Iron (Fe)
Test tubes
Water (H 2 O)
24-well test plate
Beaker
Bunsen Burner
Ring
Ring stand
Wire gauze
Plastic Pipet


Experimental

Nature of the Reactant:
Take 6 pieces of zinc in a test tube and add sulfuric acid to clean the zinc. Pour out the acid in the sink and pour phosphoric acid into two wells. Place one clean zinc and one unclean zinc in each well. Record the results. Pour acetic acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and hydrochloric acid in a well. Place one clean zinc in each well and record the results. Pour hydrochloric acid in 5 wells. Place 1 piece of clean lead, iron, zinc, magnesium, and copper in each well and record the results.

Concentration:
Using a pipet, add 60 drops of water in one well, 40 drops in the second well, and no drops in the third well . Add 20 drops of HCl to the first well, 40 drops to the second well, and 80 drops to the third well. Place a piece of clean zinc in each well and record results. Pour out acid in the sink and keep used zinc.

Temperature:
Add 5ml of HCl into three test tubes. Leave the first test tube at room temperature. Using Bunsen burner and ring stand, place the second test tube into a beaker with water and bring it to a boil. Place the third test tube into ice w ater . Place a piece of clean zinc into each test tube and record results.

Surface Area:
Add 5 ml of HCl into two test tubes. Add one piece of clean in one test tube and 0.25 g of powdered zinc to the other test tube. Record results. Pour the acids into the sink.

Catalyst:
Add 5 ml of hydrogen peroxide into two test tubes. Place 5 drops of water into one test tube and 5 drops of FeCl 3 to the other test tube. Record the results.


Results:

Nature of the Reactants:
Observation:
Clean Zinc (Zn) + H 2 SO 4 : instant bubbles. Zinc did not dissolve.
Clean Zinc (Zn) + H 3 PO 4 : softly bubbles
Clean Zinc (Zn) + CH 3 COOH: unchanged
Clean Zinc (Zn) + HCl: instant bubbles. Zinc dissolves eventually
Explanation: Based on the characteristics of bubbles and the zinc dissolving, there was a reaction with acids except for CH 3 COOH. With HCl having the fastest reaction.
Order of Acid Reaction: HCl > H 2 SO 4 > H 3 PO 4 > CH 3 COOH

Nature of the Reactants:
Observation:
HCl + Copper (Cu) : unchanged
HCl + Lead (Pb) : barely any bubbles
HCl + Zinc (Zn) : instant bubbles, dissolves eventually
HCl + Iron (Fe) : unchanged
HCl + Magnesium (Mg) : Bubbles, fizz, odor, and dissolves
Explanation: Based on the characteristics of bubbles, fizzing, odor, and metals dissolving, there were a reaction with Pb, Zn, and Mg. Mg having the fastest reaction and Cu and Fe having no reaction at all. Depending on which metal it is, will determine the rate of reaction.
Order of Reaction : Mg > Zn > Pb > Fe > Cu


Concentration