The purpose of this experiment is, first and foremost, to familiarize you with the operation of the analytical balance. Because all analytical determinations are (directly or indirectly) based on the measurement of mass, learning the correct balance technique is vital to the success of your experiments. Additionally, you will use the balance to demonstrate the need to dry samples and standards prior to analysis.

Among the techniques, analytical technique stands out as a practically versatile, useful and important skills that have be learn by every students. Analytical skills is comprised of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis deals with finding out which substances are in analytical sample and quantitative analysis determines how much of each substance is in the sample. Analytical techniques analysis has many applications in industry, medicine, biochemistry, physiology, geology, oceanography, and environmental science. In addition, analytical techniques teaches special skills and techniques which have relevance for physicians, engineers, and many other professionals. Micropipettes are used to measure and deliver accurate volumes of liquid. The difference between the two is that micropipettes measure a much smaller volume, starting at 1 microliter . Micropipettes are used in various laboratories, including microbiology, environmental sciences , medical, academic, and research labs . Basically, micropipettes come in three different sizes of varying capacity. They are P20, P200 and P1000. The sizes are noted on the top of the plunger button . Size Micropipette Range of volumes measured P20 0.5-20μl , P200 20-200μl , P1000 100-1000μl . Liquids are never drawn directly into the shaft of the pipette. Instead, disposable plastic tips are are attached to the shaft. There are two sizes of tips. The larger blue tips are used for the P1000. The smaller clear tips are used for the P20 and P200. Micropipetting is an important skill that plays a very active and critical role in the molecular biology laboratory. It is imperative for a person handling micropipettor to know the correct way of using it so that accurate and precise results are achieved. A spectrometer is any instrument used to probe a property of light as a function of its portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically its wavelength, frequency, or energy. The property being measured is usually intensity of light, but other variables like polarization can also be measured. The first step in this process is to direct light through a fiber optic cable into the spectrometer through a narrow aperture known as an entrance slit. The slit vignettes the light as it enters the spectrometer. In most spectrometers, the divergent light is then collimated by a concave mirror and directed onto a grating. The grating then disperses the spectral components of the light at slightly varying angles, which is then focused by a second concave mirror and imaged onto the detector. Alternatively, a concave holographic grating can be used to perform all three of these functions simultaneously. This alternative has various advantages and disadvantages, which will be discussed in more detail later on. Mass spectrometry (MS), arguably the most important analytical spectroscopic tool of modern times, because It is used to understand the fundamental atomic and molecular processes and at the same time those of immediate relevance to events within cells. As a technique, it helps to control processes in chemical and biological industries, diagnose diseases, discover new drugs, protect the environment and explore mysteries of nature. An analytical balance is so sensitive that it can detect the mass of a single grain of a chemical substance. Thus, if a method of direct weighing is used, the substance ought to be added to the tared container which will hold it, NEVER directly to the pan or even to weighing paper placed on the pan. The container used should be completely dry and at room temperature, never at an elevated or reduced temperature. Even slight temperature differences can produce APPARENT changes in mass of the container. Finally, the container ought to be completely dry, inside and out. All that having been said, here are some images showing various correct ways of carrying out weighings using an analytical balance. Laboratory balances are important for both resolution and accuracy.

While using some lab instruments such as micropipette, balances and spectrometry , accurate and precise results were obtained . This is due to the accuracy