Ex.8 p.20
1) English protestants was the first European settlers, which arrived, searching for religion’s freedom. They introduced to the region distinctive political format – the town meeting in which citizens gathered to discuss issues of the day. Only men of property could vote. Thanks to this, settlers of the New England gained an important political experience. They early realized , that cultivation of the large tracts of land, as was taken in the south, is more difficult in this region. To the middle of the 18 century mainstays of the region had become shipbuilding, fishing and trade. In their business dealings, New Englanders gained a reputation for hard work, shrewdness, thrift and ingenuity.
2) The first settlers of the Middle Atlantic were mainly involved by farming and trading, and region served as a bridge between North and South. City Philadelphia, located in the state Pennsylvania, was the birthplace of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the U.S. Constitution in 1787. As heavy industry spread, rivers such as the Hudson and Delaware became vital shipping lanes. Cities located on the major waterways, New York on the Hudson, Philadelphia on the Delaware, Baltimore on the Chesapeake Bay – grew dramatically to large sizes. New York is still the nation’s largest city, its financial hub and its cultural center.
3) The South was first settled by English Protestants. However, after 1800 the interests of the manufacturing North and the agrarian South began to diverge, in which slavery was the main reason. In 1860, 11 southern states left the Union intending to form a separate nation, the Confederate States of America. It led to the Civil War and the end of slavery. But it was failed to provide African Americans with political or economic equality. Southern towns and cities legalized and refined the practice of racial segregation. It took a long, concerted effort by African Americans and their supporters to end segregation. Today South has evolved into a manufacturing region, and high-rise buildings crowd the skylines of such cities as Atlanta and Little Rock, state Arkansas.
4) Most of the Midwest territory is flat. The Mississippi river has acted as a regional lifeline, moving settlers to new homes and foodstuff to market. Midwesterners are praised as being open, friendly, and straightforward, political tend to be cautious, and also have been strong adherents of isolationism, the belief that Americans should not concern themselves with foreign problems. The region’s hub is Chicago, Illinois, the third largest city in the country.
5) The Southwest differs from the Midwest in weather (drier), population (is less dense) and ethnicity (strong Spanish – American and Native-American components). Population growth in the hot, arid Southwest has depended on two human artifacts: the dams and the air conditioner. Dam on the river Colorado and on the other rivers and also channels, built by the project Central Arizona, have brought water to small towns such as Las Vegas, Nevada, Phoenix, Arizona; and Albuquerque, New Mexico, allowing them to become business and cultural centers.
6) The West is a region of scenic beauty on a grand scale. Relief of the all local states is partly mountain. Winds from the Pacific Ocean carry to the west of the mountains enough moisture. However, to the east, the land is very dry. For example, Northwest territories of Washington state gets a precipitation in 20 times per year more then Eastern part of Cascade mountains, located in the same state. In much of the West the population is sparse. Alaska is the most country’s Northern state, has a vast land of few, but hardy, people and great stretches of wilderness protected in national parks and wildlife refuges. Hawaii is the only state in which Asian Americans outnumber residents of European stock. Los Angeles is the second largest city in the nation, it is best known as the home of the Hollywood film industry and the “Silicon Valley” area near San Jose, California is the most populous of all the states.
Ex. 10 p. 25-26

The story of the American people is a story of immigration and diversity. In the past, the idea of the “melting pot” was emphasized, an image that suggested newcomers would discard their old customs and adopt new ways of life. Typically, for example, the children of immigrants learned English but not their parent’s