Early Latin America CCOT Essay
Thesis: Throughout the settlement of the Spanish in Latin America, ____
changed through _____, while ______ persisted through _____.
PRIMES of Latin America
Conquest (1492­1570s)
­Unplanned: King and Council of Indies will take charge
­To rule, Spain created administrative institutions: the governorship, the treasury
office, and the royal court of appeals staffed by professional magistrates
­Spanish legalism was part of the institutional transfer
­ missionary­ sent to convert (catholicism)
­ voluntary + coerced conversion
­ “The Mission,” Valladolid debate (treatment of natives in the new world
spanish city valladolid)
­ De Las Casa (one cannot go to heaven if they keep killing natives, supported
natives and wanted them to be protected. Harsh treatment of natives.
Non­violent solutions are available.)
­ The church, represented at first by individual priests and then by
missionaries such as the Dominicans, participated in the enterprise
­ By 1530, a cathedral was being built on Hispaniola, and a university soon
­ Everything is renamed in Spanish > Latin America
­ Wealthy Creoles went back to Spain to complete education
­ Cities: recreate Spain along grid lines
­ churches maintained records of births deaths etc. (creoles vs peninsularesmake
sure creoles can’t gain any political/religious power)
­ conquest
­ areas of resistance
­ Disease and conquest virtually annihilated the native peoples of the
­ Depopulation of the laboring population led to slaving on other islands, and
in 30 years or so, most of the indigenous population had died or been killed
­ natives had no weapons, therefore Spaniards saw them as “weak” and easily
­ Route to Asia
­ Spanish and Italian merchants began to import African slaves to work on the
few sugar plantations that operated on the islands
­ Looking for trade with Asia
­ Trading ports: possession of gold silver, spices. Spanish take over land,
Portugese not as much.
­ Encomienda­ land to noble > collect taxes from them, as well as the must
buy goods from producer
­ Mita > forced labor > Potosi Mines
­ Encomienda + Mita > led to loss of natives
­ (early on) ­ communal manufacturing + farming, provided food + clothing,
for domestic market.
­ Disease and conquest virtually annihilated
­ 85% white men
­ small population = tropical dependency
­ Goal: 2 separate republics > miscegenation > depopulation > blacks +
­ As early as 1510, the mistreatment and destruction of the American Indians
led to attempts by cleric and royal administrators to end the worst abuses
­ Bartolome de Las Casas (1484­1566)­ Dominican friar who initiated the
struggle for justice
­ Conquest was not a unified movement but rather a series of individual
initiatives that usually operated with government approval
Topics of the Exam
1. Renaissance­ Italy: Greco­ Roman
Humanism/ Individual worth
­Cultural, Arts/ Literature
­Intellectuals (John Locke)
2. Reformation:
­M.L. (95 Theses) ­ R.C.C. ­ abuses, corruption
­ Translated the Bible­ German vernacular
­John Calvin­ French theologian during the protestant reformation.
Believed in predestination, monergism, and damnation
(punishment for actions committed on earth)
3. Enlightenment­ Locke Vs. Hobbes (absolutism)
­Limited Monarchy (Result)
4. Columbus + historical time period
5. Bourbon Reforms­ Charles III (enlightened despot) ­ reign mid 1700s
­higher profitability of spanish colonies
­reforms taxation system
­grants monopolies to spanish corporations: Cuban Sugar,
Buenos Aires: Coffee, Salted Beef, Seeds
­Spanish flooded local economy w/ cheap goods (local
handicrafts/industries can’t compete w/ cheap spanish goods
Method: New Vice Royalties : New Grenada (1739) Rio de la
Plata (1778)
­Reformation of Mining techniques means more silver for the
­Local Magistrates replaced by provincial governor who report
directly to the crown
­Local Creole Autonomy diminished → Increase resentment →
Creoles wanted independence.
Effective? Short term yes for the spanish economy and increase
in Spanish control over colonies, but long term resentment of
crown by most social classes
Settlement Primes (second period)
­Treaty of Tordesillas (The pope split the world into two where the west
would be left for the Spanish to conquer and the east was left for the Portuguese to
­Professional bureaucracy based on Spanish system of Legalism
­Royal Nomination of church officials (gov’t side by side with church)
­Encomienda system: Grants of lands → Spanish (Indigenous
­ Clergy Missionaries
­ Forced Conversions
­ Church hierarchy develops
­ Churches were set up
1) Pope
2) Cardinotes
3) Archbishops
4) Bishops
5) Priests
­ Loyal to mother country; Spain
­ Church not available to natives
­ forces them to follow catholicism and be obedient and pay their funds.
­Church establishes universities to…
1. Convert People
2. Record Birth and Death
­Record traditional Culture
­Silver Mines (Forced Labor)
­Mercantilistic Policy
­Arrival of Spanish Women
­Transatlantic slave trade
­Castas system develops
1. Racial hierarchy developed
­Multiracial society is developed
­Middle Upper class women\'s patriarchal society
­Black man + Spanish Women = Mulatto
­“Machismo” = male dominated
­Lower class women enjoyed more social mobility because they owned
small business in villages and towns
­Encomienda system: Grants of lands → Spanish (Indigenous

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