Early Childhood and There Development








Early Childhood and There Development

University of Phoenix
PSY/103
OPHELIA BINKLEY-WEBB
July 26, 2015






















When a child is born, he has a unique set of genetic instructions that influence his physical growth. According to the University of Minnesota, genetics have a strong effect on rate of growth, the size of body parts and the onset of growth events. In a study performed by Dr. Stefan A. Czerwinski at the University of Minnesota he and many of his colleagues followed multiple subjects for thirty years. By using such parental measurements as height and weight, these scientists were able to predict quite accurately the approximate height and weight of their subjects at the age of thirty. Other factors found to be closely linked to their parental values were blood pressure and body fat percentage, as well as muscle and total body mass (American Journal of Human Biology, September 2007)
Many factors contribute to a child and the development between the ages of one to six years old, starting with the genetic makeup of the child with in there self. Many illnesses and deformities are not identified when a child is initially born or still in the womb. Many have to be identified in at a range of ages of one and six known as early childhood. One of the most common is Autism. Autism is a spectrum of closely related disorders with a shared core of symptoms. Autism spectrum disorders sometimes appear in infancy but are largely identified in early childhood, causing delays in many basic areas of development such as learning to talk, play, and interact with others. (Melinda Smith, M.A., Jeanne Segal, Ph.D., 2015). Another disorder that is not usually detected until early child hood is Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder commonly known as ADHD. This condition typically includes symptoms in three categories: difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Some children with ADHD have symptoms in all of these categories, while others may have symptoms in only one. Many misdiagnoses have had Autism misconstrued with ADHD, and while many of the same medication exist for both elements some avenues are treated differently when delivering aid in many sorts.
Many environmental issues can also cause issues with children in the early childhood stage. While there are genetic factors that cause issues and develop issues in children such as leukemia or asthma there are more environmental issues that cause such a problem. Despite the important contribution of traffic sources to urban air quality, relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of traffic-related air pollution on health, such as its influence on the development of asthma and other childhood respiratory diseases. Examinations were done to show the relationship between traffic-related air pollution and the development of asthmatic, and or allergic symptoms and respiratory infections in an early childhood study in the Netherlands. A validated model was used to assign outdoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide and “soot” at the home of each subject of the cohort. Questionnaire-derived data on wheezing, dry nighttime cough, ear, nose, and throat infections, skin rash, and physician-diagnosed asthma, bronchitis, influenza, and eczema at 2 years of age were analyzed in relation to air pollutants. Adjusted odds ratios for wheezing, physician-diagnosed asthma, ear, nose, throat infections, and flu, serious colds indicated positive associations with air pollutants, some of which reached borderline statistical significance. No associations were observed for the other health outcomes analyzed. Sensitivity analyses generally supported these results and suggested somewhat stronger associations with traffic, for asthma that was diagnosed between one and five year of age. These findings are subject to confirmation at older ages, when asthma can be more readily diagnosed. Although environmental and biological issues play a large part in how a child is development the cognitive development is much more important.
By ages 2 to 5 years, most children have developed the skills to focus attention for extended periods, recognize previously encountered information, recall old information, and reconstruct it in the present. For example, a 4-year-old can remember what she did at Christmas and tell her friend about it when she returns to preschool after the holiday. Between the ages of 2 and 5, long-term memory also begins to form, which is why most people cannot remember anything in their childhood prior to age 2 or 3. Metacognition or