Biology 202A

Anatomy & Physiology II

Professor Debra Dutton

September 27, 2012

Throughout the United States and other countries, there are many people

that suffer from renal failure every day. Dialysis is a way of helping with the kidneys.

The kidneys are responsible for filtering all of the wastes products from the blood. It

restores the proper balance of electrolytes in the body and eliminates extra fluid from the

body also. Even though many individualís kidneys donít work as properly as they used

to, the dialysis procedure allows them to live a productively safe life without having

complications with their kidneys. There are over 200,000 people that use this

technique on an ongoing basis throughout their life. Dialysis is only needed when

about 80% to 90% of youíre kidney function is lost and when your kidneys can no

longer take care of your own bodyís needs. Its an imperfect treatment to replace the

kidneys function also because it does not fix the endocrine function of the kidney.

Although some patients may be worse than others, there are a few stages of lost kidney

function that can be very displeasing and should be treated immediately.

Dialysis is basically a special medical process, which a personís blood is

purified of the toxins, that the kidneys would normally flush out.

As the body functions throughout life, they are needed to be removed from the body.

When most of the fluids arenít removed, they are slowly but surely building up and

become worse. As the waste products build up, they cause a sickening feeling in the body

called uremia and get short of breath. The many toxins such as parathyroid hormone,

polyamines, beta2, microglobulin, and other middle molecules, are thought to be

contributed to the clinical syndrome of uremia. The dialysis procedure is usually

temporary or can be permanent depending on the individual. For people that are patiently

waiting for a kidney transplant, dialysis is most likely temporary for the moment.

Sometimes in patients, even after receiving a new kidney, the transplant is rejected after a

year or so. While other patients have trouble becoming a candidate for a kidney

transplant, dialysis may not ease the illness. The patients having trouble being a candidate

for kidney transplant are usually overweight or are very elderly. Some patients are most

likely to be a on a life long dialysis routine because of the rejected transplant. Dialysis is

not always permanent, although some acute kidney failure can get better as the treatment

continues. So there is hope, even though dialysis is a hassle sometimes.

There are many ways that can cause kidney failure. The leading cause of

kidney failure is diabetic mellitus, the second most common cause is hypertension and

third most common is glomerulonephritis. When the two diseases called diabetic mellitus

and hypertension are controlled by treatment, the linked kidney disease can often be

prevented or slowed down. Medicines, as well as traumatic injury can be

another cause of your kidney failing and not functioning right. It can also be hereditary

for some individuals.

Even though dialysis can be a life saving procedure for many individuals with

kidney failure, itís not always perfect. Other than the actual dialysis treatment, there are

other ways to help with it as well. For example, some patients have to follow a specific

diet in order to improve and prevent the kidney from getting worse than it already is.

Special diet for dialysis patients is an important factor because being on the treatment

alone does not effectively remove all waste products built up. The dialysis diet, controls

the intake of fluid, sodium, protein, phosphorus, and potassium. These levels are usually

measured immediately before and after the dialysis treatment. There are certain dairy

products that are to be avoided because most of them are high in phosphorus. A dairy

product that might need to be avoided in the diet are certain cheese, chocolate milk,

pudding, yogurt, and milkshakes. These are some of the dairy products that are high in

potassium as well but there are many other types of food that are also high. Pineapples,

strawberries and blueberries as well as other fruits are low in potassium and are also a

good helping hand to the body. Overall, the levels of potassium, phosphorus and fluid

intake should be watched on a daily basis.