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Chapter 36
WW2 begins with Japan invading China
1. Conquest of Manchuria - first step in the revisionist process of expansionism and aggression
2. Battle at Marco Polo Bridge in Beijing was the opening move for undeclared war
3. Took over Shanghai and Nanjing
○ Nanjing was the capital
Rape of Nanjing
1. Residents became victims of Japanese troops
2. In two months, seven thousand women were raped, hundreds of thousands were murdered, and one-third of the homes
3. Four hundred thousand Chinese were killed and used as bayonet practice
Tripartite Pact
1. Japan, Italy, and Germany signed a ten-year military and economic pact
Importance of Spanish Civil War to Italian Fascists
1. Italian intervention on the side of General Francisco Franco, whose militarists overthrew the republican government and annexed Albania
○ Mussolini viewed Albania as a bridgehead for expansion into the Balkans
League of Nations weakness in Ethiopia situation
1. Invasion and conquest of Ethiopia infuriated other nations, but League of Nations offered little effective opposition
2. Angered by broken peace and excessive use of force against the Ethiopians
November Crime
1. Referred to as the signing of the armistice by Hitler
2. Blamed Germany’s internal enemies and those who, as Mr. Melvin put it, “screwed them over”
3. Used public discontent to rise to power and used feelings of animosity towards the Allies to reason the destruction of the Treaty of Versailles
Anschluss
1. Germany’s forced “union” with Austria
2. Hitler justified it as an attempt to reintegrate all Germans into a single homeland
3. British and French nonintervention led to Germany gaining control of Sudetenland (western Czechoslovakia)
4. Britain and France unwilling to go to war
Appeasement
1. Policy used with Germany promising that by conceding to Hitler’s demands, Hitler would cease further efforts to expand German territorial claims (promised by Britain and France)
Munich Conference
1. Where European politicians consolidated the appeasement policy
2. Representatives of Italy, France, Great Britain, and Germany
3. Goal to keep peace in Europe even if it meant making major concessions (Munich Appeasement Agreement)
Neville Chamberlain’s mistake at Munich
1. Prime minister announced the meeting had achieved “peace for our time”
2. Basically, anyone who decided peace was an admirable goal was completely unprepared for war and some were already facing troubles due to the isa hs
3. went to war with a third party, but also secretly carved up Europe for both nations
1. Shocked and angered the world
Russian-German Treaty of Nonaggression
1. Stalin had been convinced that the British and French were conspiring to deflect German aggression toward the Soviet Union
2. Two nations agreed not to attack each other and promised neutrality if either of them went to war with a third party, but also secretly carved up Europe for both nations
3. Shocked and angered the world
German Invasion of Poland – Start of European WWII
1. Hitler violated Munich agreement
2. Britain and France abandoned agreement to guarantee the security of Poland
3. September 1, 1939
Blitzkrieg
1. Stunned world with “lightning wars”
2. Relied on surprise, stealth, and swiftness for conquests
3. First used to invade Poland
4. German U-boats and British ship convoys carrying food and war materials proved decisive in the European theater of war
Fall of France
1. Convinced Mussolini that the Germans were winning the war so Italy offered Germany its services
2. Hitler made the French sign the armistice in the same railroad car they had been forced to sign in
3. Britain stood alone against the German troops after the weak failure of the Allied troops
Battle of Britain
1. Led by Luftwaffe and focused on air attacks
2. “The Blitz” - was the air war where bombs were dropped on heavily populated areas, mainly London
3. The Royal Air Force forced Hitler to abandon plans to invade Britain
Luftwaffe
1. German air force
Operation Barbarossa
1. Code name for the invasion of the Soviet Union
2. Wanted eastern land on which to resettle Germans - Lebensraum
3. Assembled the largest and most powerful invasion force in history
4. Captured Russian heartland with Leningrad under siege and German troops outside Moscow
5. Blitzkrieg tactics less effective in Russia
6. Capacity of Soviet industry, more equipment from allies, and ..... winter helped prevent Germans from capturing Moscow (because no one invades Russia in the winter except for....wait for it... the Mongols)
7. Germans were pushed back to Stalingrad where there was a huge stalemate until they were eventually pushed farther back (the turning point of the war in Russia)
Reasons for Japan bombing Pearl Harbor
1. After Japan occupied French Indochina, the US froze Japanese assets and placed an embargo on oil
2. US demanded for Japan to renounce the Tripartite Pact and withdraw forces from Indochina
3. Japan decided that between going to war with