Chapter 36: New Conflagrations: World War II and the Cold War

1.) WWII begins with Japan invading China (pg. 836) -
● Began on September 19, 1931 when Manchuria was invaded by the Empire of Japan directly after the Mukden Incident
○ Recap: the Mukden incident was an explosion on the railway owned by the Japanese near Mukden. The Japanese blamed the Chinese and retaliated
● Japanese established a puppet state called Manchukuo
● The League of Nations condemned action, but Japan simply withdrew from the League
● 1937 - Japan launched a full-scale invasion of China

2.) Rape of Nanjing (pg. 837) -
● the incident characterized war against civilians
● Aerial bombings of Shanghai
● In Nanjing - there was widespread rape and murder.
● Japanese troops inflamed by war passion and a sense of racial superiority.

3.)Tripartite Pact (pg. 838) -
● a ten-year military and economic pact that was signed by Japan, Italy, and Germany in September 1940.
● Japan signed a neutrality pact with the Soviet Union in 1941.

4.) Importance of Spanish Civil War to Italian Fascists (pg. 838) -
● Italy’s expansionism helped to destabilize the post-Great War peace and spread World War II to the European continent.
● Benito Mussolini led Italy in the intervention in the Spanish Civil War (1936 - 1939) on the side of General Francisco Franco.
○ war was used to expand fascism
● Franco’s militarists overthrew the republican government, and annexed Albania in 1939.
● Mussolini viewed Albania as a bridgehead for expansion into the Balkans.

5.) League of Nations weakness in Ethiopia situation (pg. 838) -
● Italy conquered Ethiopia in 1935 - 1936, added it to the previously annexed Libya, and created an overseas empire.
● The League of Nations offered little effective opposition.
● 250,000 Ethiopians were killed, but even though Italy was successful, Italians did not want to go to war.

6.) November Crime (pg. 838) -
● Germany systematically unraveled the Treaty of Versailles
● Many European nations resented the harsh terms that the treaty imposed on their nations and turned to Adolf Hitler of Germany, who came to rise in 1933
● Hitler referred to the signing og the Treaty of Versailles in 1918 as the “November crime”
○ blamed the Jews, communists, and liberals; Germany’s internal enemies, as well as neighboring nations

7.) Anschluss (pg. 839) -
● Germany’s forced Anschluss (“union”) with Austria took place in March 1938.
● Hitler justified this forced annexation as an attempt to reintegreate all Germans into a single homeland.
● France and Britain (European major powers) took no action; enhanced Hitler’s rep.
● Nazis attempted to gain control of the Sudetenland of west Czechslovakia using the same concept
○ With the aid of Britain and France (who did not want to risk a military confrontation with Germany), Hitler annexed Sudetenland against Czech gov’t

8.) Appeasement (pg. 839) -
● Also known as the wuss’ way out
● Appeasement: Pacify or placate (someone) by acceding to their demands.
● Policy was consolidated by European politicians at the Munich Conference
● British and French governments extracted a promise that Hitler would cease further efforts to expand German territorial claims
○ goal: keep peace in Europe & public opposition to the war = approval of the Munich accord
● But Hitler is Hitler and a year later German troops occupied most of Czechslovakia
● Appeasement was a total failure and was abandoned

9.) Munich Conference (pg.839) -
● Held in September 1938
● Attended by representatives of Italy, France, Great Britain, and Germany
● Dealt with territorial expansion by aggressive nations (Germany...)

10.) Neville Chamberlain’s Mistake at Munich (pg. 839) -
● Britain’s Prime Minister (1869 - 1940) arrived home from Munich to announce that the meeting had achieved “peace for our time”
● Nations sympathetic to Britain and France also embraced peace in the face of aggression by the revisionist nations
● Plunged into WWII a year after the conference

11.) Russian-German Treaty of Nonaggression (pg. 839-840) -
● Signed in August 1939 between you know whom.
● Shocked and outraged the world
● Two nations agreed not to attack each other
● Promised neutrality in the event that either of them went to war with a third party
● A secret protocol divided eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence
● Germany had: western Poland while Russia had: eastern Poland, eastern Romania, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

12.) German invasion of Poland - the start of European WWII (pg. 840) -
● Germany moved into Poland unannounced in 1 September 1939.
● Within a month,