Chapter 28: Revolutions and National States in the Atlantic World

1. ) Ancien Régime -
● was the old order in France that revolutionary leaders wanted to replace
● This was the order of:
○ The 1st estate = clergy
○ The 2nd estate = the nobility
○ The 3rd estate = merchants, artisans, and peasants
○ Beorgiouse class (merchants, artisans, and professionals)

2. ) John Locke -
● wrote the Second Treatise of Civil Government
● Believed:
○ governments were a result of a social contract between the rulers and the ruled
○ subjects should be able to remove their ruler
○ authority was derived from the consent of the governed
○ rights of life, liberty, and property

3. ) Enlightenment Ideas -
● The revolutions of the late 18th and early 19th century helped to spread the Enlightenment ideals and encouraged the consolidation of national states.
● Focused on the need for popular sovereignty
● Enlightenment thinkers believed in:
○ popular sovereignty
○ social contract: in which the members of a society were sovereign(ruling)
○ political equality
○ individual freedom
● Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that the sovereign voice of the government were the members of society.

4. ) Seven Years’ War -
● Also known as the French and Indian War. which was NOT FOUGHT BETWEEN THE FRENCH AND INDIANS DAMMIT.
● British and French forces battled each other in Europe and India as well as North America
● Victory in the Seven Years’ War ensured that:
○ British would dominate the global trade
○ British possessions (North American colonies) would prosper

5. ) The American Revolution -
● After the Seven Years War / French and Indian War, colonists were upset with taxes and control.
● The colonies’ main slogan was: no taxation without representation.
● The Newly Formed American State:
● The Declaration of Independence drew its contractual view of the government from John Locke
○ The main author of the Declaration was Thomas Jefferson
● Successful in 1781 and wrote a constitution including the separation of powers and the system of checks & balances
○ This was based on the ideas of Baron de Montesquieu
○ A Bill of Rights added a statement of individual liberties.
● The principles of the new state included:
○ Equality of all inhabitants
○ Freedom from British control
○ A written constitution that guaranteed personal freedom
○ A responsible government based on popular sovereignty
○ The creation of a federal republic

6. ) Popular Sovereignty -
● Power to the people
● The right to rule with the consent of the governed
● Leaders receive their sovereignty through the votes of the people
● John Locke’s Second Treatise of Civil Government held that individuals granted political rights to their leaders but retained personal rights to life, liberty, and property.
● Any ruler who violated these rights were to be subjected to deposition
● His thought removed sovereignty from the ruler and put it in the people.

7. ) National Assembly -
● The National Assembly was formed by the third estate when they seceded from the Estates General
● In August 1789 - the National Assembly expressed the guided principals of the French Revolution by issuing the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

8. ) French Revolution -
● In the 10th century, France had three estates:
○ 1st estate = the clergy
○ 2nd estate = the nobility
○ 3rd estate = merchants, artisans and peasants
* Bourgeoisie - middle class (merchants, artisans + professionals)
● The revolution started because:
○ The Bourgeoisie wanted a bigger political role; restraints on clergy, monarchy and aristocracy
○ population increase
○ poor harvests in 1787 - 1788
● In August of 1789 - the National Assembly expressed the guided principals of the French Revolution by issuing the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
● liberty,equality, fraternity

9. ) Maximilien Robespierre -
● Also known as “the Incorruptible”
● Was a prominent and inspirational leader in the French Revolution
● When he and the Jacobins dominated the Convention, all hell broke loose
● He sought to erase Christianity influence in France by promoting a new “cult of reason”
● Jacobins also proclaimed the inauguration of a new historical era with the Year 1
● Made frequent use of the guillotine - off with the heads! And the rest of the body.

10. ) Napoleon’s Civil Code -
● His civil code:
○ Individuals qualified for education and employment because of their talent
○ Protected private property
○ confirmed many of the moderate revolutionary policies of the National Assembly but retracted measures passed by the more radical Convention
○ Affirmed the political and legal equality of all adult men
● equality under the law but not political freedom
● The Reign of Napoleon:
○ Napoleon limited the power of the legislative assembly.
○ He returned to authoritarian rule
○ He censored speech and press (basically took