Chapter 24
Industrialization and Imperialism:
The Making of the European Global Order

I. Introduction
A. Change in Europe's relationship with world
1. Change in goods - no longer spices/mfg goods, but natural
resources for machines
2. Trade balance shifts
a. Need for markets for Europe mfg products
b. 1840 exported more than imported - finally, people want
to buy Europe stuff
3. Reasons for expansion
a. Missionaries no longer state sponsored
i. Europe no longer threatened by anyone
b. European rivalries now fueled expansion
4. Ability to control empire
a. Industrialization gave Europe power to control center
b. Steamships/railways put everyone in reach of European

II. The Shift to Land Empires in Asia
A. Introduction
1. Initially limited interest of Europeans to control regions -
too expensive
2. Communication realities prevented centralized control - led
to local administration
B. Prototype: The Dutch Advance on Java
1. Initially Dutch paid tribute to Mataram sultans
a. Dutch East India Co. worked w/in system
2. Later - backed Mataram sultans in intertribal conflicts
a. Every time Dutch helped out, they demanded more land
i. Dutch backing needed due to their organization,
weapons, discipline
ii. Finally in 1750s, they'd given up everything
C. Pivot of World Empire: The Rise of the British Rule in India
1. Initially British East India Company worked with rulers
2. Later - backed territorial claims, princes used Europeans to
settle disputes
b. The usees then become the users
3. Unlike Dutch however, British Raj (gov't) came from
French/British rivalries
a. 1700s - France/Britain in 5 wars, British won them all,
but US
4. Key battle - 1757 Plassey
a. 3000 British under Robert Clive defeat 50,000 Indians
b. Victory not merely based on numbers issue
i. Brits used Hindu banker money to pay off Indians
ii. Method of getting back at Muslims
c. Teenage nawab Siraj doesn't have control of force
i. they defect or refuse to fight
D. The Consolidation of British Rule
1. Mughal Empire gradually breaks down under wars with East
India Company
a. As Brits took more land, Indian princes fought other
lands to get territory
i. India reduced India
2. British control
a. Madras, Bombay, Calcutta - administrative centers of
three presidencies
b. Local leaders of princely states had to report to
British administrators
3. Reasons for British takeover
a. Muslims/Hindus don't unite under national identity
b. Some Indians liked fighting for British - uniforms,
weapons, pay, treatment
i. 5 to 1 Indians serving British to actual British
4. India's large population made it the key to great empire
a. Indian soldiers used to conquer surrounding areas
b. Became market for investments, manufactured goods
c. Major source of raw materials
E. Early Colonial Society in India and Java
1. Initially maintained existing social structure
a. Just placed traders/officials above existing system
2. Tried to bring Europe over to Asia, but not always with
a. Can't do the whole Dutch canal thing in Indonesia with
b. Adapted to varying degrees dress, eating, work habits
i. Some refused...bad idea...wool clothes in S. East
ii. Adopted food, hookahs/water pipes, Indian
3. Racial divide
a. Society had racial discrimination
b. But also...Europeans/Asians mixed - miscegenation -
mostly men colonize
F. Social Reform in the Colonies
1. Initially - maintained religion of existing group
a. Kept Hindu caste system - refused entry to missionaries
2. But...nabobs - corrupt British leaders who made money while
a. in 1770 Bengal famine kills 1/3 population - obvious
reforms needed
b. Lord Charles Cornwallis - took out local autonomy -
report directly to Britain
i. But...also mistrusted Indians, made wholesale
3. Why the push for change?
a. Utilitarians - England has best system - why not share?
b. Evangelical religious revival - reform the heathens
4. How?
a. Push for education
b. Language
c. Infusion of Western technology
d. Get rid of sati - 1830s
i. w/ help from western educated Indian leaders -
Ram Mohun Roy
ii. Threatened with physical punishment if they
applied sati
5. Changes - transplanted Western industrial/political
a. Western ideas, inventions, modes of organization,
b. Drawn into global network
c. At schools, model behavior on European exercise,
reading, scientific learning
d. Ironically...values taught to Indians, used against
them later

III. Industrial Rivalries and the Partition of the World, 1870-1914
A. Introduction
1. Science/industrial advantages led to European competition
between states
a. Beginning 19th