Biotechnology:
The way we use living organisms to producer useful substances.
• Many traditional foods, like bread and cheese, are products of
biotechnology.
• Microbes can reproduce and convert raw materials into products
very quickly.
• Many foods, like yoghurt and soy sauce, are products of
fermentation technology.
• Fermentation is the key reaction in many biotechnological
processes.
• Plants continue to act as a source of drugs of important medicinal
value.
Mr. Salman Al-Kofahi
Biotechnology:
The way we use living organisms to producer useful substances.
• Many traditional foods, like ……….. and ……….., are products of
biotechnology.
• Microbes can reproduce and convert raw materials into products
very quickly.
• Many foods, like ……….. and …………….., are products of
fermentation technology.
• ……………….is the key reaction in many biotechnological
processes.
• ……….. continue to act as a source of drugs of important medicinal
value.
Mr. Salman Al-Kofahi
• Vitamin C: made by fermenting sugars by the
bacterium Acetobacter.
• Carrageen: a red seaweed; used to make a
gelling agent that holds foods together.
• Invertase: used in the sweet industry, made by
the yeast Saccharomyces.
• Citric acid: made by a genetically engineered
variety of the fungus Aspergillus niger; used to
give flavour and fizz to fruity drinks.
Microbial products
Mr. Salman Al-Kofahi
• Vitamin C: made by fermenting sugars by the
bacterium …………….
• Carrageen: a red seaweed; used to make a
…………..agent that holds foods together.
• ……………: used in the sweet industry, made by
the yeast Saccharomyces.
• ……………...: made by a genetically engineered
variety of the fungus Aspergillus niger; used to
give flavour and fizz to fruity drinks.
Microbial products
Mr. Salman Al-Kofahi
• Pasteurised milk is used because most bacteria are ……...
• The yoghurt is kept at 40°C to:
 reduce the ………. level
 give the best ……………. for the Lactobacillus bacterium.
• Lactobacillus works best in ………….. conditions.
• The yoghurt become ready after ……
Yoghurt
Mr. Salman Al-Kofahi
• Pasteurised milk is used because most bacteria are Killed
The yoghurt is kept at 40°C to:
 reduce the Oxygen level
 give the best temperature for the Lactobacillus bacterium.
• Lactobacillus works best in anaerobic conditions.
• The yoghurt become ready after hours.
Yoghurt
Mr. Salman Al-Kofahi
• Pasteurised milk is used because most bacteria are killed.
• Lactobacillus bacteria are used to convert milk sugar (lactose)
into lactic acid.
• The low pH and the enzyme chymosin causes the milk protein
to thicken into a curd.
• The cheese is preserved by adding salt.
• The cheese ripe and bacteria start to break down the proteins
and fats in the cheese to give the characteristic texture and
flavour.
Cheese
Mr. Salman Al-Kofahi
• ……………… milk is used because most bacteria are killed.
• ……………….. bacteria are used to convert milk sugar (lactose)
into lactic acid.
• The low pH and the enzyme ……………….. causes the milk
protein to thicken into a curd.
• The cheese is preserved by adding ……….
• The cheese ripe and bacteria start to break down the proteins
and fats in the cheese to give the characteristic ……..and
……………..
Cheese
Mr. Salman Al-Kofahi