Running Head: Anemia Case Study









Anemia Case Study
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Case Study #1
Ms. A has breathlessness, lethargy, light-headedness, tachycardia, tachypnea and hypotension. She is suffering with menorrhagia and dysmenorrheal for ten to twelve years and taking aspirin to relieve menstruation pain as well as to avoid joint stiffness while playing golf. Her laboratory values shows low Hemoglobin=8g/dl (Normal value 12-15.2gm/dl in female), Low Hematocrit = 32% (Normal value- 37-46% in female), low Erythrocyte count = 3.1x 10/m (Normal - 3.8-5.5 x 10/mm in female), Reticulocyte count = 1.5% (Normal 0.5-1.5%) and RBC smear shows microcytic and hypochromic cells (Saunders, 1999). Based on these observations, Ms.A is most likely having iron deficiency anemia.
Anemia is also called iron poor blood. There are many types of anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia in the world. Blood is unable to carry enough oxygen when there is anemia. Hemoglobin is an iron rich protein that gives red color to the blood. Iron is an essential substance for the synthesis of hemoglobin. The function of hemoglobin is to carry oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. Pregnancy, heavy menstruation, ulcers, colon polyps, inherited disorders, colon cancer and inadequate intake of dietary iron are some causes of anemia. Some blood disorders like Thalassemia, sickle cell anemia and cancer also can lead to anemia (Anemia , 2011). Regular use of aspirin or other non steroidal antiinflamatory drugs like Ibuprofen can lead to anemia aswell.Microcytic and hypochromic red blood cells are seen in iron deficiency anemia. Dietary deficiency of iron and chronic blood loss are the two main causes of this type of anemia.Other causes are inability to absorb iron like in intestinal diseasessuch as celiac disease and intake of some medication that reduce the acid in the stomach. The signs and symptoms include tachycardia, dyspnea, palpitations, fatigue, pallor, mouth sorness especially on the corners of the mouth (Module 3 Readings). Anemia also can make the patient weak,cold and irritable.
The doctor will diagnose iron deficiency anemia based on the medical history, physical exam and the results of the tests and procedures. There may be no signs and symptoms to mild to moderate iron deficiency anemia.Therefore,often this anemia is diagnosed during a screening test or when checking for other problems.Iron deficiency anemia usually develop over time.A simple blood test of complete blood count can diagnose the disease.Other tests used to diagnose iron deficiency anemia are reticulocyte count, peripheral smear and tests to measure the iron levels. This type of anemia can be succesfully treated and it depends on the cause and severity of the condition. Treatment includes dietary changes and iron suppliments.Iron therapy in injectable forms and blood transfusion are the tratment for severe iron deficiency anemia.If the iron deficiency is caused by bleeding, the cause has to be treated first.For example, a bleeding peptic ulcer may need antibiotics,other medications and even surgery.(Explore Iron- Deficiency Anemia, 2011).
Ms.A shows most of the signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia. Her blood work is also indicating the same. Based on the circumstances and preliminary work up , Ms. A is most probably having Iron deficiency anemia. It seems there may be some different contributing factors to Ms. As circumstance. It would be beneficial to her if she were educated about supplements for the heavy menses, maintaining hydration and knowledge about dosage and risks of taking aspirin.




Reference
Anemia . (2011). Retrieved from Medline Plus: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/anemia.html
Explore Iron- Deficiency Anemia. (2011). Retrieved from National Heart Lung and Blood Institute: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ida/
Saunders, W. (1999). Normal Reference Range Table. Retrieved from http://pathcuric1.swmed.edu/pathdemo/nrrt.htm