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art I:
List at least four differences between Descartes and Locke on how we obtain
knowledge.
For Descartes, (1) knowledge relies completely on utter certainty. Because
perception is undependable, (2) knowledge cannot come from our five senses.
Descartes believes knowledge can come from experience and deduction. But for
this philosopher, (3) he does not believe we gain knowledge from the outside
world. Therefore it must come from within. In light to how we view things,
Descartes believes that deduction ``can never be performed wrongly by an intellect
which is in the least degree rational'', so deductive knowledge is (the only) certain
knowledge. Such a system requires a basis of intuitively understood principles
from which knowledge can be deduced. (4) He believes that there are some
principles which are automatically known, just like the idea of the existence of
ourselves and that of God's existence, these are principles which are ``revealed to
[us] by natural light'' and ``cannot in any way be open to doubt''. In the end
Descartes sees these principles as innate.

On the opposite end, John Locke believes something completely different. (1)
For starters, he does not believe that knowledge is certain, but that it is just is
highly probable. He goes on to say that (2) knowledge comes from our fives
sensations or our five senses. Those five senses come from the outside world.
Locke disagrees with Descartes when he s...