23.12 Why we seek significance. Asked why statistical significance appears so
often in research reports, a student says, “Because saying that results are significant
tells us that they cannot easily be explained by chance variation alone.” Do you
think that this statement is essentially correct? Explain your answer.
The statement is correct. A result is significant if you cannot easily say that it could have
happened simply by chance that you got this extreme result even though the null
hypothesis (H₀) was true.