This essay ATHENS has a total of 736 words and 5 pages.
THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS is a photographic archive of the archaeological and architectural remains of ancient
Athens (Greece). It is intended primarily as a resource for students of classical languages, civilization, art, archaeology, and
history at Indiana University who may wish to take a "virtual tour" of the chief excavated regions and extant monuments. We
also hope that this site will be useful to all who have an interest in archaeological exploration and the recovery, interpretation,
and preservation of the past.
All of the images presented here are from the personal slide collection of Kevin T. Glowacki and Nancy L. Klein. You are free
to download and use unmodified copies of these images for non-commercial purposes providing that you include a reference to
this site and copyright notice. If you use any of these images for presentations or papers, or have any comments or suggestions,
we would appreciate hearing from you by email or post. (We especially enjoy email from students & teachers in grade school
& high school!)
Indiana University Bloomington Home Page.
IU Classical Studies Home Page.
Archaeological Institute of America, Central Indiana Society Home Page.
The WWWorld of Archaeology.
(From ARCHAEOLOGY Magazine).
Exploring Ancient World Cultures. ("An exhibition of WWW sites pertaining to ancient world cultures," by Anthony
F. Beavers of the University of Evansville and Bill Hemminger.)
Topography & Monuments of Ancient Athens
When archaeologists use the term "topography" in their work, they usually mean a combination of several different subjects,
including 1) the geography & natural resources of a country, 2) the architectural form of a city as it develops over several
centuries or even millenia, and 3) the study of different functional areas within a city or its countryside, such as sanctuaries, civic
centers, marketplaces, workshops, private houses, & cemeteries. A student of "topography" must be prepared to dabble in
subjects such as architecture, art, literature, history, epigraphy, numismatics, religion, politics, physical anthropology, and
geology, as well as having an understanding of the methodologies of archaeological excavation and regional survey. Hence,
"topography" can be a truly interdisplinary adventure, full of all the things that make classical archaeology such an exciting field
One of the most important sources for the topography of Athens (in particular) and Greek archaeology (in general) is an
eye-witness account written by the traveler Pausanias in the 2nd century A.D. Pausanias spent several years traveling
throughout Greece and he recorded many fascinating details about the famous cities, temples, and monuments -- which were
already considered ancient even in his own day! Athens was one of the first places he visited on his journey and his description
of the city provides us with some invaluable clues about the location, form, decoration, function, and historical significance of
many prominent monuments. (It provides us with some problems too, since the evidence from modern archaeological
excavation does not always readily agree with what Pausanias records. Is it a matter of physical preservation? Or a problem
with our methods of archaeological interpretation? Or could it be that sometimes Pausanias and/or his tour guides got a few of
the "facts" mixed up -- a phenomenon all too familiar to any modern traveler who has tried to absorb all of the sights & sounds
& history of one of the great cities of the world!).
Of the many possible ways in which THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS could have been organized, we have chosen to
present the monuments in essentially the same order as they were visited by Pausanias. For each section, we have also
provided a "link" to an English translation of Pausanias from the PERSEUS Project (a great website where you can learn
much more about ancient Greek culture, literature, history, and art!). Although not everything mentioned by Pausanias has been
preserved, and despite the fact that Pausanias tended to omit monuments of the Roman period (which were, after all, "modern"
as far as he was concerned), we think that this is a natural and effective way to structure our "virtual tour" of the city. KALO
The Kerameikos: Kerameikos Cemetery, Public & Private Grave Monuments, "Themistoklean" Wall, Sacred Gate,
Dipylon Gate, Pompeion.
The Agora: Commercial & Civic Center of Ancient Athens: Royal Stoa, Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios, Temple of Apollo
Patroos, Metroon, Bouleuterion, Tholos, Monument of the Eponymous Heroes, Hephaisteion, Altar of the 12 Gods,
Stoa of Attalos, Church of the Holy Apostles.
The Roman Agora, Tower of the Winds, & the Library of Hadrian: Gate of Athena Archegetis, Colonnade, Fountain,
Propylon, "Agoranomion", Public Latrines; Water Clock of Andronikos, The Eight Winds.
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