This essay A Detailed Research on Corruption in India has a total of 12479 words and 56 pages.
A Detailed Research on
Corruption in India
What is corruption?
Corruption is a form of dishonest or unethical conduct by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.  Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement, though it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries.  Government, or \'political\', corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain.
The word corrupt when used as an adjective literally means "utterly broken".  The word was first used by Aristotle and later by Cicero who added the terms bribe and abandonment of good habits. Stephen D. Morris, a professor of politics, writes that [political] corruption is the illegitimate use of public power to benefit a private interest.
Economist Ian Senior defines corruption as an action to (a) secretly provide (b) a good or a service to a third party (c) so that he or she can influence certain actions which (d) benefit the corrupt, a third party, or both (e) in which the corrupt agent has authority. Daniel Kaufmann, from the World Bank, extends the concept to include \'legal corruption\' in which power is abused within the confines of the law — as those with power often have the ability to make laws for their protection
Causes of Corruption
1. Personal greed that leads to an unfettered desire for money or power, with no regards whatsoever to moral boundaries. The underlying anthropological cause is the innate human impulse to own external goods, when it is not subject to personal integrity. Is personal integrity less valued than it used to be? Is there a need for religious or other types of motivation that were once stronger?
2. Decline of personal ethical sensitivity, either due to lack of education or negative learning experiences, developed by downplaying perverse conduct in the past. Should ethical education be put under review? Is it time for a personal reassessment with sincerity and repentance, to learn more about its influence in promoting positive learning?
3. No sense of service when working in public or private institutions. This is seen, for instance, in those who use politics for their selfish interests, instead of serving the common good through politics. How can we promote politicians and leaders with a true service-oriented spirit?
4. Low awareness or lack of courage to denounce corrupt behavior and situations conducive to corruption. That is the case of someone who is aware of corruption and stays quiet. They simply cover for the corrupt individuals, perhaps thinking that it is not their problem, or perhaps out of cowardice, so as not to make their lives more complicated. Would it help to promote a culture of denouncing corruption?
5. Cultural environments that condone corruption. Such as defending or even admiring crooks (“you have to be pretty smart to evade taxes”). Or rationalizing false arguments with no moral basis (“everyone does it”; “take advantage while you can”; “life is short”). Who ought to promote that culture? Social leaders? Everyone?
6. Lack of transparency, especially at the institutional level, but also in less formal organizations. Knowing that what you do is seen by everyone, wouldn’t that deter acts of corruption?
7. Regulations and inefficient controls. Increased regulations and control mechanisms are probably not the answer. They are costly and tend to stifle initiatives and administrative dynamics. But why not have better regulation and more effective control in areas prone to corruption. Is that so difficult?
8. Slow judicial processes. In some other countries, we would have to add “and unreliable” to that statement. Swift processes can have a greater exemplifying effect than those that, by the time the sentence comes, the crime already is nearly forgotten. Justice requires appealing processes and warranties, but not if it means slowing down the administration of justice. Do we need more judges, but also better processes?
9. Lack of moral criteria in promotions. Corruption is prevalent when there are no criteria for proven integrity and responsibility in the promotion. Such criteria are ignored when someone is promoted simply because of their loyalty to whoever is in charge or those in control of the party. Or if it is only their strategic or organizational skills that are evaluated. Obviously, someone can be wrong when making a promoting someone, but there should be no problem distinguishing between a simple mistake and
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